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Zvitsva zvitsva zvemurume wekutanga kunzvimbo yevashanyi Olduvai Gorge

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Olduvai Gorge

Olduvai Gorge inzvimbo yakakosha yevashanyi uko vashanyi vanogona kudzidza nezvekushanduka kwevanhu uye prehistory. Iyo saiti uye musimamende nyowani zvinokwezva vashanyi vemuno nevekunze kuti vashanyire uye vanzwe zvaingave zvakanzwa senge kurarama sekutanga kwakaita murume wekutanga.

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Chikwata chepasi rose chevanochera matongo uye paleoanthropologists chakawana muunganidzwa wakakura wemamirioni maviri emakore maturusi ematombo, zvisaririra zvemabhonzo, uye zvigadzirwa zvemiti paOlduvai Gorge kuchamhembe kweTanzania.

Dombo richangobva-kuwanikwa rinoratidza kuti vanhu vepakutanga vaishandisa nharaunda dzakasiyana siyana dzinokurumidza kuchinja muAfrica kumhanyisa hupenyu hwepasi pano. Kufambidzana kusvika kumashure senge mamirioni 2.6 emakore apfuura, maturusi achangobva kuwanikwa angave akagadzirwa nevanhu vekutanga. Olduvai Gorge ikozvino kiyi Tanzania nzvimbo yevashanyi uko vashanyi vanogona kudzidza nezve kushanduka kwevanhu uye prehistory.

Iyi nzvimbo yakakosha inoratidza kuti hupenyu hwepakutanga hwevanhu hunoratidza kuti vaigara pakutanga pakati pemhuka dzinotyisa dzemusango munzvimbo yakaoma yeAfrica mukati memazuva ekutanga ekushanduka kwevanhu. Kuwanikwa kutsva uku kunosanganisira maturusi ematombo uye zvisaririra zvemhuka dzakasiyana siyana panzvimbo yekuchera, zvinopa humbowo hwekuti munhu wekutanga aigara pamwe chete nemhuka dzesango dzakakomberedza manyuko emvura.

Ongororo ichangoburwa inoratidza kuti iyo geological, sedimentary, uye nzvimbo dzekudyara dzakachinja nekukurumidza mu Africa, zvichipa humbowo hwekuvapo kwevanhu vekutanga vane nzira dzehupenyu hwepakutanga paPasi kuti dzakatanga mukondinendi ino.

Nzvimbo yekuchera yeOlduvai inzvimbo yemashiripiti inokwezva vashanyi vemuno nevekunze kuti vashanyire uye vawane zvaingave zvakanzwa sekurarama semurume wekutanga. Kuwanwa kweHominid kunosara kusvika kumamiriyoni 1.75 emakore apfuura.

Saiti iyi canyon diki ingangoita makiromita makumi maviri nemana kuchamhembe kweNgorongoro Crater, uko kwakacherechedzwa nevanozivikanwa vekuKenya vanocherekedza matongo eBritish, Dr.Louis Leakey nemukadzi wake Mary, vakadzika musasa ndokuzoita ongororo yehupenyu hwemurume wekutanga.

Iyo Olduvai Gorge Museum yakave nezvakachengetedzwa zvakanaka-zvisaririra zvemurume wekutanga.

Mary Leakey akawana musi waChikunguru 17, 1959, dehenya remurume wekutanga ravakatumidza kuti Zinjanthropus boisei. Kuwanikwa kwake kwe dehenya remurume uyu wekutanga pasi pano kwakapfuura makore 1.75 miriyoni apfuura. Muna 1960, Louis Leakey akawana mapfupa emaoko nemakumbo emunhu ane makore gumi nemaviri waakatumidza kuti Homo habilis. Dr. Louis Leakey akafa muna 12, asi mudzimai wake Mary akaenderera mberi nekutsvaga zvitsva kuOlduvai. Muna 1972, Mary akawana tsoka dzekutanga dzevanhu kuLaetoli padhuze neOlduvai, kumaodzanyemba kweOlduvai Gorge.

Kuchera kwakakura kuOlduvai Gorge kwakaburitsa pachena yaive imba yekutanga yekugara yemunhu wechinyakare, vakadaro VaGodfrey Ole Moita, weCultural Heritage Officer weNgalongoro Conservation Area Authority.

Iyi pre-nhoroondo saiti inotambanudza ingangoita makiromita makumi mashanu kubva kuLake Ndutu kuenda kuOlbalbal Depression uye iri 50 metres kudzika muNorth Tanzania. Nzvimbo yekuchera inzvimbo yakaoma ine matombo, ikozvino yakadziviswa nana twiza, mbizi, mbizi, mhara, ingwe, neshumba pano neapo pamwe nedzimwe mhuka dzesango, kusanganisira zvinokambaira neshiri.

Mabhonzo ema hominid edzinza reHomo anosanganisira Homo habilis, Homo erectus, uye Homo sapiens akafukunurwa kuOlduvai, pamwe nemazana emamwe mapfupa uye maturusi ematombo akanangana nemakore anopfuura mamirioni matatu apfuura. Kuchera nekutsvagisa kweOlduvai kwakatungamira vezvakaitika kare nemamwe masayendisiti kugumisa kuti vanhu kana rudzi rwevanhu rwakashanduka muAfrica, sezvakataurwa naOle-Moita.

Iyo Olduvai Gorge Museum inoratidza zvisaririra zvakawanda nematombo ematombo emadziteteguru anosanganisira mapfupa emhuka dzakawanda dzakatsakatika dzakacherwa pamupata. Iyo miziyamu yakavambwa naMary Leakey uye yakatsaurirwa kukoshesa uye kunzwisiswa kwenzvimbo dzeOlduvai Gorge neLaetoli mafossil saiti. Kunze kwekuratidzira mukati memuseum, kune zvakare nzvimbo dzekunze dzekudzidzisa uko varongi vemuMuseum vachipa mharidzo dzekutarisa kuvashanyi. KuMuseum, munhu anogona zvakare kuronga rwendo rwakatungamirwa pasi pemupata.

Zvinyorwa zvekuchera matongo zvakawanikwa paOlduvai Museum zvakavhara hominid zvakasara zvemakore angangoita mamirioni mana, kunyanya kubva padanho rekutanga rekushanduka kwevanhu. Aya marekodhi, kusanganisira aya ekutanga tsoka dzevanhu, anodzoka angangoita mamirioni 4 makore. Hominid inoramba yakachengetwa muMuseum yakavambwa kubva pamamirioni maviri kusvika pamazana gumi nemanomwe emakore. Dzinenge zviuru zvinomwe zvemhuka dzakatsakatika dzakafukunurwa pamupata. Vanyori vezvakaitika kare nemamwe masayendisiti ekushanduka-shanduka kwevanhu vakagumisa kuti munhu wekutanga kana munhu akashanduka kuOlduvai akabva atamira kune dzimwe nzvimbo dzenyika.

Land Rover yaMary Leakey yekare kubva panzvimbo yekuchera yakachengetedzwa mumuseum nyowani. Kushanyira Olduvai Gorge uye miziyamu chiitiko chenguva-mu-yehupenyu kune vafambi.

#rekuvakazve

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Nezvomunyori

Apolinari Tairo - eTN Tanzania