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Pasi Penzvimbo yeUpenyu hwechiJuda

Muzivi weGerman, Martin Buber
Muzivi weGerman, Martin Buber

Vagari veEastern Europe, kunyanya Poland neUkraine, vaive varombo, kazhinji vasina kudzidza, uye vasina hunhu uye hunyanzvi hwevakuru vekuWestern Europe. Nekuda kweiyi misiyano mikuru, vazivi vekuWestern Europe vaigara vachiratidza kushora ruzhinji rweEastern Europe vaigara munyika dzakatambanuka kubva kuPoland kuenda kumatanho eRussia uye kubva kuUkraine kuenda kuBalkan.

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Muzivi weGerman, Martin Buber
  1. Iyo yekupedzisira de siècle nguva (kunopera 19 uye kutanga kwezana ramakore rechi20) yaive nguva yegoridhe yemapepa esainzi eGerman nefilosofi.
  2. Iyo nguva yaive zvakare nguva yehurombo hukuru muEastern Europe.
  3. Misiyano uripo pakati pemativi maviri eEurope yakazviratidza nenzira dzakawanda. Western Europe yaive yakapfuma, tsika uye hunyanzvi.

Izvo zvaive zvechokwadi kune zvakajairika nzanga dzeEuropean, zvaive zvechokwadiwo nenyika yechiJuda. Kusunungurwa kwaNapoleon kwemaJuda kubva kumaghetto eFrance neGerman kwakakonzera kukudzwa kwechiJuda munharaunda yeWestern Europe.

MaWestern Europe maJuda akataura mutauro wenyika yavo uye vakatora tsika dzeEuropean. Vazhinji vakadzidziswa kumayunivhesiti akanakisa eEurope. Kungofanana nezvakaitika kuvanhu vemunyika mavo, maWestern Europe maJuda vaitarisira pasi maEastern Europe maJuda. Ruzhinji rwevaPolish, Russian neUkraine maJuda vaive varombo uye vasina kudzidza mumutauro wekumadokero netsika. Vaigara mumisha inonzi shtetls (sezvakatsanangurwa mu "Fiddler padenga remba"). MaWestern Europe nemaAmerican maJuda vakaona hama dzavo dzekumabvazuva sezviratidzo zvezvose zvavaitsvaga kuti vatize.

Zviri mukondinendi ino yakakamurwa ndipo muJuda mukuru Muzivi weGerman, Martin Buber (1878-1965), akapedza chikamu chekutanga chehupenyu hwake.

Pakati pemakumi emakore ekutanga ezana ramakore rechimakumi maviri, Buber aive mumwe wevazivi vepamusoro veGerman. Akave anofarira hupenyu hwechiJuda hwekuEastern Europe uye akashanda sebhiriji raibatanidza nyika mbiri idzi.

Asati amuka kweNazi Germany, Buber aive purofesa paYunivhesiti yeFrankfort uye munyori akasimba muchiGerman nechiHebheru. Yake yakasarudzika uzivi basa "Ich und Du" (Ini naIwe) ichiri kuverenga kutenderera pasirese.

Vazhinji vatsoropodzi uye vazivi vakafunga kuti Buber anga ari hofori yekutanga kwezana ramakore rechimakumi maviri uzivi uye kufunga kwevanhu. Basa rake redzidzo rave nesimba rakakura pamhando dzakasiyana siyana, kusanganisira anthropology yekurapa, psychology yefilosofi, uye dzidziso yekudzidzisa. Aivewo muturikiri wemuBhaibheri. Dudziro yaBuber naRosenzweig yeMagwaro echiHebheru ndeyezvinyorwa zvechiGerman.

Buber akafadzwa nenyika yeEastern Europe hupenyu hwechiJuda. Kunyangwe vaaishanda navo vakatarisa pasi pa shtetl, Buber akawana kuti pasi penzvimbo idzi dzakaomarara, pakange paine nyika yakadzika uye ine hukama, nyika yaive yakaoma kunzwisisa uye yehukama hwevanhu. Rake rakakurumbira basa rekunyora "Chassidic Tales" harina kungopa chiremerera kunharaunda yakazvidzwa, asi zvakaratidza kuti pfungwa yakadzika yefilosofi yakanga isiri iyo yega dunhu revadzidzi vekumadokero.

Buber akaunza kuhupenyu kwete chete chikamu chemunharaunda che shtetl hupenyu asiwo hukama hwayo pamweya naMwari.

Buber "anotikoka" muhupenyu hwe shtetl. Anotaridza kuti iyi misha, kunyangwe iri murombo muzvinhu zvepanyika, yaive yakapfuma mutsika nemweya.

Kuverenga mabasa aBuber tinosvika pakudzidza kuti vanhu vakamanikidzwa kugara pakati pehurombo uye rusaruro vakakwanisa kushandura tariro kuita zviito uye ruvengo kuita rudo.

Tinogona kuverenga yaBuber "Chasidic Tales" pamatanho maviri. Padanho rekutanga, tinoverenga ngano dzevanhu pamusoro pevanhu vari kuyedza kubudirira munyika ine hukasha, nyika umo kungorarama kwaive padyo nechishamiso. Padanho rakadzama, isu tinowana huzivi hwakaomesesa hunodzidzisa muverengi kufara kune hupenyu mukati mekuora mwoyo.

Kubasa rese raBuber, tinoona kuti vagari ve shtetl vakava sei shamwari dzaMwari. Kusiyana ne "vepamusoro" vekuWestern Europe, ava "vasina ruzivo" havana kuyedza kutsanangura Mwari. Ivo vaingorarama kuenderera hukama naMwari. Vanhu ve shtetl vakashandisa mazwi zvishoma. Kunyangwe kana uchitaura naMwari, manzwiro aiwanzoratidzwa kuburikidza nemumhanzi we "neegoon": rwiyo rusina mazwi, kurira uko kwakavaswededza padyo naMwari.

Martin Buber akaunganidza ngano idzi, ndokudziputira mumapakeji akaomesesa mune zvedzidzo, uye ndokuvakundira pfungwa yekuremekedza pasirese nyika.

Mabhuku ake.

Akabudirira kudzora rutendo rune simba rweEastern Europe Jewry nehupenyu hwakaomesesa hweWest West, achisiya isu mubvunzo kuti iro boka raive nani?

Buber akaratidza kuti vadzidzisi vekumadokero vakapatsanura sei chokwadi, nepo munyika ye shtetl pakanga paine kutsvaga kwehutano. Buber akafumura huzivi hwekuMadokero kune iyo pfungwa ye tzimtzum: iyo pfungwa yechiyero choumwari uye nokudaro ichibvumidza kutsveneswa kwezvakajairika. Kuverenga Buber, tinoona kuti vagari veshtetls vakawana sei Mwari kwese kwese nekuti Mwari akaita nzvimbo inokwanisa kukura vanhu.

Buber haamire nekutsanangura hukama pakati pevanhu naMwari (bein adam la-makom) asi zvakare inopinda munyika yehukama hwehukama hwevanhu (bein adam l'chaero).

Kuna Buber ndiko chete kusangana pakati pevanhu kunogadzira gumbeze rerudo uye kudzivirirwa kubva kuchitonho cheruvengo nekusarura. Munyika yaBuber, hapana kupatsanurana pakati pezvematongerwo enyika pamweya, pakati pebasa nemunamato, pakati pebasa remumba nehukuru. Chokwadi hachiwanikwi mune zvisingazivikanwe, mune zvakavanzika asi mune zviri pachena, mukudyidzana pakati pemunhu nehupenyu. Buber anoratidza kuti hukama uhu hunoshandura sei nyika isina moyo uye nenzira dzetsika dzinoita kuti hupenyu hukoshe kurarama.

Mukuratidzwa kwaBuber kwe shtetl, hapana munhu akanaka zvachose kana akaipa. Pane kudaro, pane kutsvaga kwe teshuvah, kutendeuka uye kudzokera kuna Mwari nehunhu hwese.

Buber anotipa isu, sezvakaita Sholom Aleichem nezvandakanyora nezvake mwedzi wapfuura, vanhuwo zvavo vanowana Mwari munzira dzinojairika dzehupenyu. Vanhu vaBuber havasviki kupfuura munhu, asi vorarama hupenyu hwavo nenzira yekuti nekuva vanhu vanobatana naMwari. Buber anoenzanisira chiito ichi kuburikidza nehunhu hweiyo tzadik (mutungamiri wezvemweya uye wevanhu). Iyo tzadik inokudza zuva rega rega, ichiita dzvene, kuburikidza nechishamiso chekutsvenesa anonetesa uye asinganakidze maitiro ehupenyu.

Zvinyorwa zvaBuber zvinotsanangura nyika iyo isisipo.

Yakaparadzwa neruvengo rweNazi Europe uye negungwa rayo rekusarura, isu takasiiwa tisina chimwe chinhu kunze kwenyaya, asi idzi ingano dzinoita kuti hupenyu hunakidze kurarama, uye zvinokonzerwa nemuzivi wechiGerman ane hungwaru akatiza Germany ndokumisazve hupenyu hwake. muIsrael, kuti isuwo tinogona kutsvenesa zvakajairika uye tiwane Mwari mune zvese zvatinoita.

Peter Tarlow is rabbi anobuda kuTexas A & M Hillel Foundation muCollege Station. Iye mufundisi weCollege Station Police department uye anodzidzisa kuTexas A&M Koreji yeMishonga.

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Nezvomunyori

Chiremba Peter E. Tarlow

Dr. Peter E. Tarlow mutauri ane mukurumbira pasi rose uye hunyanzvi anoongorora kukanganisa kwematsotsi nehugandanga paindasitiri yekushanya, zviitiko uye manejimendi njodzi yekushanya, uye kushanya nekusimudzira hupfumi. Kubva 1990, Tarlow anga achibatsira nharaunda yekushanya nenyaya dzakadai sekuchengetedzwa kwekufamba uye kuchengetedzeka, kusimudzira hupfumi, kushambadzira kwekugadzira, uye kufunga kwekugadzira.

Semunyori anozivikanwa mumunda wekuchengetedzwa kwekushanya, Tarlow munyori anobatsira kumabhuku mazhinji ezvekuchengetedzwa kwekushanya, uye anoburitsa akawanda ezvidzidzo uye akashandisa zvinyorwa zvekutsvaga zvine chekuita nenyaya dzekuchengetedza kusanganisira zvinyorwa zvakaburitswa muThe Futurist, iyo Journal of Travel Research uye Security Management. Zvikamu zvakasiyana zveTarlow zvehunyanzvi uye zvehunyanzvi zvinyorwa zvinosanganisira zvinyorwa pazvinhu zvakaita se: "rima kushanya", dzidziso dzehugandanga, nekusimudzira hupfumi kuburikidza nekushanya, chitendero uye hugandanga uye kushanya kwekushanya. Tarlow anonyora zvakare uye anoburitsa inozivikanwa pa-line tsamba yekushanyirwa yeTourism Tidbits inoverengwa nezviuru zvevashanyi uye vezvekufamba kutenderera pasirese muzvinyorwa zveChirungu, Spanish, uye Portuguese.

https://safertourism.com/

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