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Kukwira Kwemukati Kwemakaroni Mutengo

rakanyorwa mupepeti

Sezvo kunetsekana kwekushanduka kwemamiriro ekunze kuchikura, makambani anotarisana nematanho akasimba ehurumende anovaranga nekupfuura mweya wetsiva. Iyi mirango inowanzouya nenzira yemari yemari uye inowanzozivikanwa semutero wekabhoni.

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  1. Mamwe makambani anopikisa mutero wekabhoni.
  2. Vamwe vanoziva nei mutero uri kuitwa uye vari kuyedza kudzikisira mweya.
  3. Imwe nzira yakajairika ndiyo inowanzo kunzi yemukati kabhoni mitengo.

Zvichitaurwa zviri nyore, kabhoni yemitengo inoenderana nemakambani anogadza kukosha kwemari pane kwavo emhepo. Nepo mutengo uyu uri wekufungidzira, inozivisa yakawanda sarudzo uye inobatsira makambani kusave nekabhoni.

Zvisingashamisi, makambani mazhinji ari kutora pfungwa yemutero wekabhoni. Sekureva kweCarbon Disclosed Project (CDP), makambani anodarika zviuru zviviri, anomiririra anodarika US $ 2,000 tiririyoni mumusika wemari, akazivisa kuti pari zvino vari kushandisa mutengo wemukati wekabhoni kana kuronga kuita imwe mukati memakore maviri anotevera.

Parizvino, yemukati kabhoni yemitengo yakajairika musimba, zvinhu, uye zvemari maindasitiri ebasa.

mabviro

Kutanga Kubva 

Yemukati kabhoni mitengo inoita kuti makambani aise mutengo pamusika pakufambisa yakawanda kabhoni, kunyangwe kana mashoma mashandiro avo aripo zvino pasi pemitemo yekunze-yemitengo nemitemo yavo yakabatana. 

Makambani anoshandisa mitengo yemukati nenzira dzinotevera:

  • Kufuridzira sarudzo pamusoro pemashandisirwo emari, kunyanya kana mapurojekiti akanangana nekuburitsa, zvikuru kana mapurojekiti akanganisa zvinobata, kuchengetedza simba, kana shanduko muchikamu chemagetsi. 
  • Kuongorora, kuumba, uye kudzora njodzi dzezvemari nehutongi hwehurongwa huripo uye hunogoneka hwehutongi hwehurumende. 
  • Kubatsira kuwana njodzi nekuvhura uye kugadzirisa zano maererano.

Mutengo wakasarudzika mukati unoratidzira iriko kabhoni mutero kana mubhadharo wakatemerwa musimba ravo kune mamwe masangano. Mamwe mafemu anogona kunge asina mashandiro mumatunhu ane yakajeka macarboni-mitengo mitengo. 

Mitengo yakasarudzwa nemakambani pasirese inosiyana zvakanyanya, nemamwe makambani ari kutengesa kabhoni yakaderera sezana muzana patani. Mukupesana, vamwe vanoiongorora iri pamusoro pe $ 100 patani. 

Iko kabhoni mutengo wakasarudzwa zvinoenderana neindasitiri, nyika, uye nekambani zvinangwa. Tisati tatsanangura nzira dzakasiyana siyana idzo mafemu anoshandisa zvemukati kabhoni mitengo, zvakakosha kuti vanzwisise kuti vanosarudza sei pamutengo wekabhoni.

Kuyera Carbon tsoka

Panguva yekuenda, makambani anofanirwa kuve nekunzwisisa kwakajeka kwavo emissions

Kunyangwe nyika dzakasiyana nenyika dzakatora mirau dzakasiyana dzezvakatipoteredza nemitengo yekabhoni, makambani anoona huwandu uye nzvimbo yepositi yavo chaiyo uye isina kunangana CO2 emissions. Iyo US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) inobata mishumo yekubuda kwakananga kubva kumafemu esimba uye vagadziri muUnited States. 

Kutungamira kuburitsa kana kuyera kumwe kuburitsa kunobva kunzvimbo dzinotarisirwa kana kudzorwa nekambani - semuenzaniso, chisi kubva mukutsva mune mbiri-bhaira kana ngarava yayo yemotokari. Maitiro aunotarisa aya maburiro anoenderana nekwaanobva. Semuenzaniso, nekuputa fodya, unogona kushandisa kuenderera mberi kwekubuda masisitimu (CEMS) kuteedzera kuburitsa kabhoni. CEMS vaongorori inogona zvakare kuteedzera magasi senge NOx, SO2, CO, O2, THC, NH3, Uye zvakawanda.

Chisina kunangana chiyero zviviri zvinobuda kubva kukambani yakawana magetsi, kupisa, mweya, uye kutonhora. 

Zvimwe zvisizvo zvisina kubudiswa (chiyero 3) zvinoitika mukambani yekupa, senge kugadzira uye kutakura zvakatengwa uye kuraswa kwemarara. Misiyano iri pakati pechisviniro chakananga uye chisina kunangana inoratidza kuti kunyangwe makambani asiri mumakambani akanyanya-kabhoni anogona zvakare kuve anozvidavirira mukubuda kwakakosha.

Yemukati kabhoni inowanzo kutora imwe yeaya matatu mafomu:

Imari yekabhoni yemukati

Mari yemukati yekabhoni ndeyekukosha kwemusika kwetoni yega yega yekubuditsa kabhoni inobvumiranwa nemadhipatimendi ese musangano. Mutengo unogadzira yakazvipira mari chiteshi kuti ubhadhare matanho akasiyana siyana akatorwa kudzikisa mweya. 

Mutengo wemakambani anoshandisa yemukati kabhoni muripo unobva pamadhora mashanu- $ makumi maviri pametric ton. Kumisikidza mutengo kunoda kutarisisa dzakasiyana siyana bhizinesi rese zvinoenderana nemutero unobhadharwa uye izvo zvakakosha zvekuti mari inogona kuwanikwa sei. 

Kune hunhu hwakasiyana siyana hwerudzi urwu rwemutengo wekabhoni, sekugadzira sisitimu yemari yekutengesa nekutengesa inoteedzera nzira dzekunze senge EU Emissions Trading Scheme. Mari yakakwenenzverwa neiyi nzira inonyanya kudzoreredzwa mukusimudzira uye zvirongwa zvekudzora kabhoni. 

Mumvuri mutengo

Mumvuri mutengo wemitengo ndeye dzidziso kana inofungidzirwa mutengo pamatani ekoni kabhoni. Iine nzira yemumvuri yemutengo, mutengo wekabhoni unowedzeredzwa mukati mezviitiko zvekutengesa. Izvi zvinogona kusanganisira kuongororwa kwenyaya dzekutengesa, maitiro ekutora, kana gadziriso yemabhizinesi kuratidza mutengo wekabhoni. Mutengo unotevera unoendeswa kumashure kune mamaneja kana vanobatika.

Kazhinji, mutengo unoiswa padanho rinoratidza iro remangwana remutengo wekabhoni. Iyo yemumvuri mutengo weakabhoni nzira inobatsira bhizinesi kuti inzwisise kabhoni njodzi uye vozvironga pachavo iwo usati wave mutengo wemumvuri wave iwo chaiwo mutengo. Zvinogona kuve nyore kuita mutengo wemumvuri mukati mebhizinesi sezvo pasina shanduko kumadhivhoiti ebazi kana zvibvumirano zvemari.

Mutengo wakazara

Mutengo wakasarudzika unobva pamari inoshandiswa nekambani kudzora gasi inokanganisa kupisa kana mutengo wekutevera zvirevo zvehurumende. Semuenzaniso, inogona kuve iri mari inoshandiswa nekambani matsimba anovandudzwa esimba

Mutengo wakazara unobatsira mabhizinesi kuona uye kudzikisa izvi zvinodhura uye kushandisa ruzivo rwunowanikwa kuti vabate tsoka yavo yekabhoni. Iyo yakasarudzika kabhoni mutengo inogona kumisikidza muyadhi usati waunza zviri pamutemo chirongwa chemukati chemari kabhoni yemamwe makambani.

Bhenefiti yekumisikidza Yemukati Carbon Mutengo

Kugadzika yemukati kabhoni mutengo kunogona kupa kwakakosha mabhenefiti. Zvinosanganisira:

  • Kuita macarbon kukurukurwa nzvimbo yekutarisisa kune bhizinesi mashandiro. 
  • Inodzivirira iyo kambani kupokana neiyo ramangwana kabhoni mutengo
  • Inobatsira iyo kambani kuziva uye kunzwisisa kabhoni uye kabhoni njodzi mubhizinesi
  • Kukundikana-kusevha ramangwana bhizinesi zano 
  • Inogadzira mari yezvinhu zvinowanikwazve magetsi
  • Inogadzira kuziva mukati nekunze
  • Inopa mhinduro kune vatengi nevashambadziri nezve zvavanonetsekana nazvo nezve kuchinja kwemamiriro ekunze 
  • Inoderedza kuburitsa kabhoni

Yemukati kabhoni yemitengo inogona kushanda seyakanaka chishandiso-kudzora chishandiso ine akati wandei mabhenefiti kunze kwekambani zviitiko, vatengi, uye nharaunda. Kana zvabatanidzwa nedzimwe nzira, makambani anobatsira kusimudzira yakaderera-kabhoni shanduko zvakanyanya.

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mupepeti

Mupepeti mukuru ndiLinda Hohnholz.

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