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Zvitsva zveJupiter Zvakawanikwa kubva kuNASA Juno Probe

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Zvitsva zvakawanikwa kubva kuNASA's Juno probe inotenderera Jupiter inopa mufananidzo uzere wekuti akasiyana uye ane mavara emuchadenga maficha emuchadenga anopa ruzivo nezvemaitiro asingaonekwe ari pasi pemakore ayo. Mhedzisiro yacho inoratidza kushanda kwemukati kwemabhandi nenzvimbo dzemakore akatenderedza Jupiter, pamwe nemadutu epolar uye kunyange Great Red Spot.

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Vatsvagiri vakaburitsa mapepa akati wandei pane zvakawanikwa naJuno zvemuchadenga nhasi mujenari Science uye Journal yeGeophysical Research: Mapuraneti. Mamwe mapepa akaonekwa mune maviri achangoburwa zvinyorwa zveGeophysical Research Letters.

"Izvi zvitsva zvakaonekwa naJuno zvinovhura bhokisi rehupfumi reruzivo rutsva pamusoro pezvinhu zvisinganzwisisike zveJupiter," akadaro Lori Glaze, director weNASA yepuraneti sainzi chikamu kumahofisi makuru esangano iri muWashington. "Pepa rega rega rinojekesa zvakasiyana-siyana zvemamiriro ekunze epasi - muenzaniso wakanaka wekuti zvikwata zvedu zvesainzi zvepasi rose zvinosimbisa sei kunzwisisa kwesolar system yedu."

Juno yakapinda mugwara reJupiter muna 2016. Pakufamba kwechimwe nechimwe chechitundumuseremusere chepasi kusvika pari zvino, chimwe chikwata chezviridzwa chakadongorera pazasi pedeki yayo yemakore.

"Kare, Juno akatishamisa nemashoko ekuti zviitiko mumhepo yeJupiter zvakadzika kupfuura zvanga zvichitarisirwa," akadaro Scott Bolton, muongorori mukuru weJuno kubva kuSouthwest Research Institute muSan Antonio uye munyori anotungamira weJournal Science bepa pakadzika kwemvura yaJupiter. "Zvino, tave kutanga kubatanidza zvidimbu zvese izvi pamwe chete uye kuwana kunzwisisa kwedu kwekutanga kwemaitiro akanaka uye echisimba emhepo yeJupiter - mu3D."

Juno's microwave radiometer (MWR) inobvumira mamishinari esainzi kuti atarise pasi pepamusoro pegore reJupiter uye kuongorora chimiro chemadutu ayo mazhinji. Iyo inonyanya kuzivikanwa yemadutu aya ndeye iconic anticyclone inozivikanwa seGreat Red Spot. Yakafara kupfuura Nyika, iyi crimson vortex yakashamisa masayendisiti kubva payakawanikwa mazana maviri emakore apfuura.

Mhedzisiro mitsva inoratidza kuti madutu ari kudziya pamusoro, ane density yemhepo yakadzika, asi achitonhora kuzasi, ane density yakakwira. MaAnticyclone, ayo anotenderera akananga kune rimwe divi, anotonhora kumusoro asi achidziya pasi.

Zvakawanikwa zvinoratidzawo kuti madutu aya akareba kupfuura zvaitarisirwa, aine mamwe akareba mamaira makumi matanhatu (60 makiromita) pazasi pemakore uye mamwe, kusanganisira Great Red Spot, akareba mamaira mazana maviri (100 makiromita). Kuwanikwa kunoshamisa uku kunoratidza kuti mavhuvhuvhu anofukidza matunhu ari kunze kweaya panoumbika mvura uye makore anoumba, pasi pakadzika panodziya chiedza chezuva. 

Kureba uye saizi yeGreat Red Spot zvinoreva kuwanda kwemuchadenga mukati medutu zvinogoneka kuonekwa nemidziyo inoongorora giravhiti yeJupiter. Mabhii maviri epedyo eJuno flybys pamusoro penzvimbo yakakurumbira yeJupiter akapa mukana wekutsvaga siginicha yesimba rinokwevera remhepo uye kuzadzisa mhedzisiro yeMWR pakudzika kwayo. 

NaJuno aifamba akadzika pamusoro pedenga reJupiter pane 130,000 mph (209,000 kph) Juno masayendisiti akakwanisa kuyera shanduko yekufamba sediki 0.01 millimita pasekondi vachishandisa antenna yeNASA's Deep Space Network yekutevera, kubva chinhambwe chinodarika mamirioni mazana mana emamaira (400). mamiriyoni emakiromita). Izvi zvakagonesa chikwata ichi kumanikidza kudzika kweGreat Red Spot kusvika mamaira mazana matatu (650 kilometres) pasi pemakore.

"Kurongeka kunodiwa kuti utore simba reGreat Red Spot panguva yekubhururuka kwaChikunguru 2019 kunoshamisa," akadaro Marzia Parisi, sainzi weJuno anobva kuNASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory muSouthern California uye munyori anotungamira webepa muJournal Science pamusoro pesimba regiravhiti. Great Red Spot. "Kukwanisa kuzadzisa zvakawanikwa neMWR pakadzika kunotipa chivimbo chikuru chekuti kuyedza kweramangwana regiravhiti paJupiter kuchaunza mhedzisiro inonakidza zvakaenzana." 

Mabhandi uye Zone

Pamusoro pemadutu uye anticyclones, Jupiter inozivikanwa nemabhandi ayo akasiyana uye nzvimbo - machena uye matsvuku mabhandi emakore anoputira pasi. Mhepo dzakasimba dzekumabvazuva-kumadokero dzinofamba dzakatarisana dzinoparadzanisa mabhandi. Juno akamboona kuti mhepo idzi, kana kuti jet streams, dzinosvika pakadzika makiromita 2,000 3,200 (makiromita angangoita XNUMX). Vatsvagiri vachiri kuyedza kugadzirisa chakavanzika chekuti jet nzizi dzinoita sei. Dhata rakaunganidzwa naJuno's MWR panguva yekupfuura kwakawanda rinoratidza imwe nzira inogona kuitika: kuti gasi remumhepo ammonia rinofamba richikwira nekudzika mukurongeka kunoshamisa neanoonekwa jet hova.

"Nekutevera ammonia, takawana masero ekutenderera kuchamhembe nekumaodzanyemba kwehemispheres akafanana muzvisikwa ne'Ferrel cell,' ayo anodzora mamiriro ekunze edu pano paPasi", akadaro Keren Duer, mudzidzi akapedza kudzidza kubva kuWeizmann Institute. yeScience muIsrael uye munyori anotungamira weJournal Science bepa paFerrel-seseru paJupiter. "Nepo Nyika iine Ferrel sero pahemisphere, Jupiter ine masere - rimwe nerimwe rakakura zvakapetwa ka30."

Juno's MWR data inoratidzawo kuti mabhandi nenzvimbo dzinoita shanduko inosvika makumi mana mamaira (40 makiromita) pasi pemakore emvura eJupiter. Pakudzika kwakadzika, mabhandi eJupiter anopenya muchiedza chemicrowave kupfuura nzvimbo dzakavakidzana. Asi pakadzika kwakadzika, pasi pemakore emvura, zvinopesana ndezvechokwadi - izvo zvinoratidza kufanana nemakungwa edu.

"Tiri kudaidza iyi nhanho kuti 'Jovicline' mukufananidza kune inochinja inoonekwa mumakungwa ePasi, inozivikanwa se thermocline - apo mvura yegungwa inoshanduka zvakanyanya kubva pakudziya kusvika pakutonhora," akadaro Leigh Fletcher, Juno sainzisiti kubva kuYunivhesiti. yeLeicester kuUnited Kingdom uye munyori anotungamira webepa muJournal yeGeophysical Research: Mapuraneti anoratidza maonero aJuno microwave emabhandi anodziya eJupiter nenzvimbo.

Polar Cyclones

Juno akambowana hurongwa hwepolygonal hwemadutu makuru emhepo pamatanda ese eJupiter - masere akarongwa mune octagonal pateni kuchamhembe uye mashanu akarongwa mune pentagonal pateni kumaodzanyemba. Ikozvino, makore mashanu gare gare, mamishinari esainzi anoshandisa zvakaonekwa nechitundumuseremusere Jovian Infrared Auroral Mapper (JIRAM) akaziva kuti zviitiko zvemuchadenga izvi zvinokwanisa kusimba zvakanyanya, zvichiramba zviri panzvimbo imwe chete.

"Madutu eJupiter anokanganisa mafambiro emumwe nemumwe, zvichiita kuti vatadze pamusoro penzvimbo yakaenzana," akadaro Alessandro Mura, Juno muongorori weNational Institute for Astrophysics muRome uye munyori anotungamira webepa richangoburwa muGeophysical Research Letters nezve oscillations uye kugadzikana. muJupiter's polar cyclones. "Maitiro eaya anononoka oscillations anoratidza kuti ane midzi yakadzika."

JIRAM data inoratidzawo kuti, semadutu ari paPasi, madutu aya anoda kufamba akananga, asi madutu ari pakati pedanda rega rega anoadzosera kumashure. Iyi chiyero inotsanangura panogara madutu uye nhamba dzakasiyana padanda rega rega. 

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