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MuFrance chete: Champagne ine Romantic Happy Bubbles

Mufananidzo nerubatsiro rweE.Garely

Oscar Wilde akati, "Vasingafungi chete ndivo vanogona kutadza kuwana chikonzero chekunwa champagne."

Kugadzirwa kweChampagne kwakatangira mazana emakore, uye ruzivo rwakaunganidzira uye hukama hwakakura hweveruzhinji hwakaita kuti zvigadzirwa zveFrance neFrance ive imwe yeanonyanya kufananidzira "nyika dzewaini" papasi.

France ndiyo chete nzvimbo munyika umo munwi ane nyota anogona kuwana mazambiringa, uye minda yemizambiringa inobereka Champagne.

France newaini zvakafanana sezvo chigadzirwa chiri chikamu chakakosha chenyika yekurima, chikafu uye tsika nhoroondo uye chitupa.

Muna 2018, France yaive nemahekita angangoita 786,000 emizambiringa, ine chigadzirwa chinoda kusvika 46.4 hectoliters, zvichiita kuti France ive yechipiri pakukura kugadzira waini pasirese nehuwandu, kuseri kweItari. Kugadzirwa kweFrance kunomiririra 16.5 muzana yewaini yepasi rose. Kubva pakuona kwepamusoro, hekita imwe kubva pagumi yega yega yemizambiringa pasi rose inowanikwa muFrance.

Economic Injini

Bazi rewaini rinoshandisa vanhu vangangosvika zviuru mazana mashanu nemakumi mashanu nesere, kusanganisira zviuru zana nemakumi mana nevaviri varimi vewaini, uye vangangosvika zviuru makumi masere nezvina inhengo dzeimwe ye558,000 French cooperative cellars inogadzira mazana matatu ezviuru mabasa, zviuru makumi matatu nemasere vatengesi, zviuru zvitatu zvevamiriri vewaini, 142,000 vashandi vewaini mudhipatimendi rekugovera waini. . Zvikamu zviviri muzvitatu zvekugadzirwa kwewaini yeFrance inopedzwa muFrance uye 84,000 muzana yemhuri yeFrance (690 miriyoni) inodya waini kumba (300,000).

Vanenge mamirioni gumi vashanyi vewaini (10 muzana kubva kunze kwenyika) vanoshanyira zviuru gumi zveFrance zvekushanyirwa kwewaini cellars kana makumi matatu nemamyuziyamu akatsaurirwa waini muFrance. 

Kutumira Waini kunze kwenyika

France ndiyo inonyanya kutengesa waini kunze kwenyika (yakamira pamberi peItari neSpain) iine zvikamu makumi maviri nepfumbamwe kubva muzana zvehukoshi huchiita kuti ive chigadzirwa chehunyanzvi chekutengesa kunze kwenyika kuFrance. Muna 29, France yakatumira kunze kwenyika ingangoita 2018 hectoliters kweanoda kusvika 14.9 bhiriyoni maEuro (yakaenzana neanopfuura zana Airbus ndege). Kutengeswa kweFrance kune kunyanya (inenge 8.9 muzana) kuendeswa kunyika dzeEurope, inotungamirirwa neGermany neUnited Kingdom; zvisinei, nzvimbo huru yewaini yeFrance ndiyo USA (100 muzana yehuwandu hunotengeswa kunze kwenyika, kunyanya mumabhodhoro).

French Define Wine

Muna 1907 waini yakatsanangurwa zviri pamutemo muFrance sechinwiwa chakaviriswa umo zvinhu zvese zvinofanirwa kubva kumazambiringa, kusanganisira mvura uye kunyanya zvinonaka. Chinangwa: kurambidza chero kugadzirwa zvisiri pamutemo kungangowedzera kugadzirwa uye njodzi inokonzera mitengo yewaini kudzikira.

Waini yepasi rose yakatsanangurwa (1973) neInternational Office of Wine (OIV) yakavambwa muna 1924 se "chete chinwiwa chinokonzerwa nekuvirisa kana kusara kwedoro kuviriswa kwemazambiringa matsva, akapwanyika kana kwete, kana mazambiringa anofanira. Simba redoro rinogona kunge risiri pasi pe8.5 muzana neuwandu.”

Bazi rewaini reFrance ndiro rekutanga kuve nekusimudzira kusimudzira kwaro pazita rekwakabva, kuchengetedza kutaura kweiyo teroir iyo yakawandisa kubereka inogona kuderera. Kubva pakuona kwehupfumi, tsika yekuda waini inomanikidzirwa mugoho ravo inochengetedza njodzi dzekuwedzera uye kudonha kwemutengo.

Vagadziri ve champagne neshungu vanodzora maitiro ekugadzira, vachichengetedza mukurumbira wewaini inopenya sechinhu chakasarudzika.

Champagne ndiyo yaive dunhu rekutanga kupihwa zita rekuti (controlled delimitation) nenyika yeFrance. Mafungiro ekugadzirisa akawedzera kukosha mukutanga kwezana ramakore rechi20 sezvo champagne yakakosha kuzita renyika yeFrance uye inobatsira kumisikidza nzira idzo terroir uye hurongwa hwemazita anodzorwa hunochengetedza dzinza reFrance.

Champagne. Mugumisiro Usingatarisirwi

Nhoroondo inoratidza kuti waini inopenya "yakazvarwa" netsaona - kugadzirwa kwekabhoni gasi rinobuda kubva kune yechipiri kuviriswa kwembiriso. Mawaini mazhinji anogona "kupenya," zvisinei, vagadziri veChampagne vanotarisa pane-yemusika mukana wechinwiwa chinopenya, vachishanda nesimba kusimudzira hunhu hwakasiyana hunodzokera kumadzinza evakuru uye ngano dzepatrimony, kubatanidza chinwiwa, nzvimbo uye vagadziri. kune yakasarudzika uye yepamusoro-musika yapfuura.

Ne Belle Epoque (1871–80), kunwa champagne kwaive kupinza chirevo chako kuhupenyu hwebudiriro. Yakave zita renyika mumusika wepasirese, chinhu chine hukuru hwekufananidzira, uye tsika nemagariro.

Champagne musanganiswa

Champagne waini yakasanganiswa, uye nzvimbo huru dzemhuri dzinotonga nevanotaurirana vane mutoro wekupwanya, kusanganisa, kuchembera, uye kushambadzira waini. Mazambiringa nevhu ndizvo chete zvaishandiswa nevarimi kudzora kugoverwa kweChampagne. The phylloxera epidemic of 1890s akatyisidzira vignerons uye negociants zvichiita kuti pamutemo pfungwa yokuti Champagne senzvimbo yakatsanangurwa yakanga yakakosha pakuzivikanwa kweChampagne sechinwiwa chenyika uye chepasi rose.

Pagara paine makakatanwa pakati pevarimi vemazambiringa nevarimi. Varimi vanotengesa vanenge makumi maviri nenhatu muzana emabhodhoro ese eChampagne, asi pamusoro pe23 muzana yeiyi kutengeswa inogadzirwa muFrance. Mazhinji emavignerons inhengo dzeimwe yemakorasi zana nemakumi matatu nenomwe mudunhu iri, uye akagadzirirwa kupa vagadziri vadiki mukana wekuwana mari yavasingakwanise kuwana ivo pachavo uye kusimbisa simba ravo rekutaurirana pamberi pesimba repamusoro rehupfumi revatengesi nevepakati. . Kune mamwe macooperatives muChampagne kupfuura chero imwe nzvimbo yewaini yeFrance, uye akagadzirirwa kugadzira mazambiringa, uye kutengesa muto kana ichiri waini kudzimba.

Pane nzira ina dzinokosha dzekubata mazambiringa:

1. Dhinda uye tengesa muto

2. Gadzira waini yakanyarara inotengeswa

3. Isa waini yakanyarara kuburikidza nekuvirisa kwechipiri mubhodhoro uye wozotengeswa

4. Isa waini yakanyarara kuburikidza nekuvirisa kwechipiri mubhodhoro uye tengesera kune vamwe kuti vatengese sechigadzirwa chavo

5. Gadzirai waini isingadhuri inotengeswa pasi pelabel yavo mumakwikwi negociants nevamwe varimi.

Champagne Brands

Mapoka mashanu parizvino anodzora mazhinji emusika weChampagne.

1. Moet-Hennessy Louis Vuitton (LVMH) (hombe munzvimbo yeumbozha):

• Moet et Chandon (1743)

• Veuve Clicquot (1772)

• Krug (1843)

• Ruinart (1764)

• Mercier (1858)

Mamwe mapoka anosanganisira:

2. Vranken Pommery (1858), BCC iyo muridzi:

• Lanson (1760)

• Boizel (1834)

• deVenoge (1837)

3. Laurent Perrier (1812) anosanganisira:

• Salon (yakatangwa muna 1911). Imwe yedzimba dzakakurumbira muChampagne. Panzvimbo pekugadzira akati wandei masitaera anosanganisira prestige cuvée senge dzimba zhinji dzeChampagne, Salon inogadzira imwe mbiri cuvée, inogadzirwa kubva kuChardonnay kubva kumusha Le Mesnil-sur-Oger.

• Delamotte (1760)

4. Pernod Ricard (boka rezvinwiwa zvemarudzi akawanda)

• Amai (1827)

• Perrier Jouet (1811)

5. Remy Contreau

• Charles naPiper Heidsieck (1851)

17 epakati mabhizinesi emabhizinesi anoita 33 muzana yekukosha:

• Taittinger (mavambo 1734; Taittinger 1931)

• Louis Roederer (1833)

• Bollinger (1829)

• Pol Roger (1849)

Iyo Nicolas Feuillatte (yepamusoro yekutengesa Champagne muFrench hyper uye masupamaketi muna 2020) inotengesa mabhodhoro 4.5 miriyoni, 2.6 miriyoni mabhodhoro kupfuura yechipiri yakanyanya kutengeswa brand, Alfred Rothschld. The Feuillatte mhando (yakatanga muna 1976) inounza pamwe makumi masere madiki, akawanda emunharaunda makorasi mubhizinesi rimwechete, zvisina kunanga kubatanidza vangangoita zviuru zvitanhatu zvemavignerons mudunhu. Nicolas Feuillatte ndiye wechina-kana wechishanu pakukura mhando pasirese nehuwandu.

Maviri emukurumbira cuvee Champagnes akatanga maitiro anoramba achikosha mumusika wepamusoro: Moet's Dom Perignon, uye Roederer's Cristal. Imba yeRoederer yakatanga Cristal muzana remakore rechi19 reImperial Court yeRussia, uye Czar Alexander II. Iyo cuvee yakagamuchira zita rayo kubva kune isina kujairika yakajeka crystal bhodhoro iro mambo akasimbirira kushandisa. Moet & Chandon, mugadziri akakura kwazvo, chikamu chidiki muzana chehuwandu hwekugadzirwa kweMoet. Waini yakatanga kutengeswa mukutanga kwezana remakore rechi20, kunyanya muEngland, uye United States, ichivepo muFrance pakati pezana remakore rechi20.

The Ultimate in Luxury

Vatengi vanoona Champagne semutambarakede uye vachida kubhadhara mitengo yepamusoro yechigadzirwa chinodhura angangoita 9 Euros kugadzira (chaiyo, isiri-yevintage brut); iko kushambadzira kwakangwara uye kuenderana kwemhando iyo yakaiisa zvakabudirira sese chiratidzo uye ngano.

Zvidzidzo zvinoratidza kuti Champagne haisi kutenga zuva nezuva muzvitoro zvikuru.

Chete (paavhareji) 1.8 kutenga pamunhu, pagore kunoitwa, kusiyana nekutenga 5 pamunhu pagore kwewaini inopenya seyakazara (kwete kusanganisira Champagne). Tsvagiridzo iyi inoratidzawo kuti 60 muzana yevatengi vanonwa Champagne nekuda kwekugarisana kana kuvaraidza zvikonzero, uye avhareji yezera remutengi weChampagne iri pakati pe35-64, nemukadzi ane simba anotevera pakati pemakore 17-24.

Mimwe misika iri kusangana nekudzikira kwekutengesa kweChampagne, uye ino ingave nguva yakakodzera yekuwedzera kuedza kwekushambadzira kupfuura kupemberera, kuwedzeredza uye kunyengedza kuwedzera sarudzo kune aperitif uye chikafu chine hushamwari.

APVSA - Inounza New Champagne kuNew York

Kana iwe uri mutengi wewaini, mutengesi, muparidzi, mumiririri, munyori wewaini / muongorori, sommelier kana mudzidzisi wewaini, unofanira kusangana naPascal Fernand muvambi weAssociation pour la Promotion des Vins et Spiritueux (APVSA), sangano risingabatsiri iro inobatanidza boutique varimi vewaini/vagadziri vewaini nemisika yeNorth America (kusanganisira USA, Mexico neCanada). Yakavakirwa muMontreal, Fernand apedza makore anopfuura makumi maviri achiunza waini yeboutique, uye vagadziri vemidzimu kumisika mitsva, uye vatengi vatsva.

Pachiitiko chichangobva kuitika cheAPVSA muNew York City, ndakava nerombo rakanaka rekusangana naMathieu Copin, anobva kuChampagne Jacque Copin, ari muVerneuil, France. Parizvino Copin Champagne inotengeswa kunze kwenyika, uye inoparidzirwa muCalifornia, Puerto Rico, Japan, The Netherlands, Sweden, Denmark, Switzerland, Germany, Switzerland, South Africa neCambodia.

Mhuri ine, yakazvimirira estate iri pamunda wemizambiringa we10ha muMarne Valley uko kunogadzirwa mamwe anonyanya kufadza uye akasiyana Champagnes. Pinot Meunier, chizvarwa chemuzambiringa munzvimbo iyi, inotarisa kuCopin Champagnes.

Nzvimbo iyi yakavambwa naAlfred Copin mukupera kwezana ramakore rechi 19 paakatenga minda yemizambiringa muVandieres. Winery yakapfuudzwa kuna Maurice Brio, naAuguste Copin vakatora zvigaro zvehutungamiriri pavakadyara mizambiringa yekutanga yeChardonnay, uye Pinot Noir. Kutanga muna 1963 Jacques Copin akawedzera bhizinesi reVerneuil nemukadzi wake, Anne-Marie, achisuma Champagne Jacques Copin brand.

Kubva 1995, Bruno nemukadzi wake, Marielle nevana vavo, Mathieu naLucille, vari kutungamira Copin brand operation kusanganisa tsika nehunyanzvi hwazvino. Minda yemizambiringa inochengetwa nemaoko uye vinification inoitika mumadhiramu emuouki nepo thermo-regulated stainless-steel vats uye micro-vinification inobvumira kugadzirwa kwemachampagne akasiyana.

Personal Copin Favorites

Copin inogadzira Champagnes akawanda uye anotevera anoratidza mhinduro dzangu dzechido kune vashoma vakasarudzwa:

1. Polyphenols 2012. Extra Brut. 50 muzana Chardonnay, 50 muzana Pinot Noir.

Polyphenols (phonelic compound) yakasikwa kumazambiringa. Ivo varipo paganda, vachipa ruvara uye kunhuhwirira uye vanoonekwa sevanobatsira kune hutano. Purofesa Jeremy Spencer, Dhipatimendi reChikafu neKunovaka Sayenzi, Yunivhesiti yeKuverenga, anoona kuti polyphenols ine, "yaniso yekupesvedzera kushanda kwenjere sekurangarira ...' Imwe tsvakiridzo kubva kuYunivhesiti yakaratidza kuti, "magirazi maviri echampagne pazuva anogona kunge akanaka. zvemoyo wako nekutenderera uye zvinogona kuderedza njodzi dzekurwara nechirwere chemoyo nesitiroko. ”

Mazambiringa ePolyphenols Copin akakohwewa nemaoko munaGunyana 19-20, 2012, uye akatsikiswa mukati memaawa matanhatu; disgorgement yakaitika nechando nejetting uye hapana SO6 yakawedzerwa. Waini yakabhoderedzwa munaKurume 2, 8, muchiFrench akagadzira girazi reruvara rwesinamoni kubva kuOI SAS France de Reims fekitori. Hapana kutonhora kana kusefa; malolactic kuvirisa; hapana finings. Kubika nekuvirisa kwedoro: Yeast yakaoma yakaoma yakagadzika kusvika ku2013 degrees C mumidziyo yesimbi. Cellar yakwegura kweinenge mwedzi 17 pa 108 degrees C ine capped cork uye P11 chisimbiso.

Iyi brut, half chardonnay nehalf pinot noir inopa mucherechedzo wegoridhe unoyevedza kuziso, muchero muchena wakaibva, maapuro egirinhi, plums, grapefruit, uchi, uye manotsi akakangwa kumhino, uyezve anopinza chimiro chakasiyana uye chinoyevedza kumukanwa izvo. inosimbiswa neyakajeka acidity. Dense, yakaoma uye inonaka, iyi champagne inopa kupera kwenguva refu uye kufara. Patanidza nenguruve, salmon, tuna, shellfish kana nyoro / nyoro cheese.

2. Rose Brut. 60 muzana Pinot Noir, 25 muzana Meunier, 15 muzana Chardonnay kubva kuMisha mitatu iri muMarne Valley (Veneuil, Vincelles, Vandieres).

Sustainable viticulture nekushandiswa kushoma kwezvigadzirwa zvekugadzira. Kukohwa nemaoko kuchiteverwa nepneumatic pressing. Kuvirisa kwacho kunotangwa patembiricha yakaderera mumatangi esimbi isina simbi inoburitsa waini yakaoma ine doro shoma. Waini inobva yasefa zvishoma kuti ichengete mbiriso. Kuvirisa kunotangazve kwechisikigo kwehushoma hwemwedzi miviri; iyo overpressure yakagadzirwa mubhodhoro inodzivirira kuvirisa kutsva. Iyo disgorgement inoitwa nekudzikisa bhodhoro pasi pekumanikidzwa, ine sterile filtration.

Yakadzika coral pink kuziso pamwe chete nemabhuru ane hupenyu. Iyo mhino inofara nekunhuhwirira kwakapfava kwema cherries matsva nemastrawberries. Iyo mukanwa inonakidzwa nekuwanikwa kwemuchero mutsvuku wakaenzana nemakwenzi uye light acidity. Nakidzwa seaperitif kana nemakeke egakanje, dhadha, hove uye chokoreti-based dessert uye michero.

3. Le Beauchet Extra Brut. 100 muzana Pinot Noir yakagadzirwa kubva musanganiswa wegoho kubva muna 2012, 2013 uye 2014 kubva kuBeauchet plot. Miti yemizambiringa yakadyarwa muna 1981 ine 41B midzi.

Nzvimbo yacho iri kumaodzanyemba kwakadziva kumadokero kwakatarisana, ine mutsetse wakaderera pazasi pezvikomo, kazhinji ivhu revhu-loamy rine limestone shoma uye rakapfuma kwazvo musimbi. Mazambiringa anotangwa nemaoko uye anotsikwa mukati memaawa matanhatu. Disgorgement nechando nejetting isina yakawedzera S6.

Yakabhodha munaKurume, Kubvumbi kana Chivabvu mushure mekutanha, muhuremu huremu French yakagadzira mabhodhoro egirazi champagne kubva kuO1 de Reims fekitori. Hapana kutonhora kana kusefa. Racking mushure me AF Malolactic kuvirisa kusina kuitwa. Hapana finings. Kuvirisa doro. Yeast yakaoma yakaoma Saccharomyces cerevisiae galactose pa18 degrees C mumidziyo yesimbi. Disgorgement date rakanyorwa pachigadziko chebhodhoro uye cork; inozorora kwemwedzi 5-6 isati yatengeswa.

Kuti uwane rumwe ruzivo nezve waini inowanikwa kuburikidza neAPVSA, tinya pano.

© Dr. Elinor Garely. Ichi chinyorwa chekopirisita, kusanganisira mapikicha, chingangodaro chichiburitswa pasina mvumo yakanyorwa kubva kumunyori

Dzimwe nhau pamusoro pewaini

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#champagne

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Nezvomunyori

Dr. Elinor Garely - akakosha kuTN uye mupepeti mune mukuru, waini.travel

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