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mufananidzo nerubatsiro rweE.Garely

Sud De France imhando yewaini yanga isiri pamusoro pezvandaida waini runyoro, kutaura zvazviri, yakanga isiri kunyange pane rondedzero. Iri pakati peLanguedoc-Roussillon neMidi-Pyrenees, Sud De France ipurojekiti inotsvaga kuratidza kusiyana uye kunaka kwedunhu. Zita idzva renzvimbo iyi ndiOccitanie, rakasarudzwa nekuda kwekukosha kwenhoroondo yemutauro nemitauro yeOccitan.

The Occitanie inosanganisira dunhu rakafanana nenzvimbo inodzorwa neCounts yeToulouse mu12th - 13th mazana emakore uye muchinjiko weOccitan (unoshandiswa neCounts of Toulouse) parizvino chiratidzo chakakurumbira chetsika.

Occitanie yakava pamutemo munaChikumi 24, 2016, uye inosanganisira dzinotevera nharaunda nehuwandu hwevanhu:

Nzvimbo iyi iri pakati pemidungwerungwe yemakomo maviri, Massif Central kuchamhembe, nemakomo ePyrenean kumaodzanyemba, uye pakati peMediterranean neAtlantic Ocean.

Mazhinji ewaini munzvimbo yeLanguedoc-Roussillon musanganiswa wemhando dzakatsvuka dzechinyakare dzinosanganisira Carignan, Cinsault, Grenache Noir neMourvedre. Kurimwa kwazvino kunosanganisira Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, neSyrah. Mhando chena dzakanyanya kukosha iGrenache Blanc, Marsanne, Rousanne Viognier neUgni Blanc dzine chido chekufarira Chardonnay.

WTM London 2022 ichaitika kubva 7-9 Mbudzi 2022. Register zvino!

Remarkable History

Kunyangwe chikamu ichi cheFrance chine budiriro yewaini inocherechedzwa, nhoroondo yayo haina kujeka, kunze kwevanyori venhoroondo uye vadzidzi vanotarisa nezvehupfumi uye zvematongerwo enyika hwaro hweindasitiri yewaini.

Tsvagiridzo inoratidza kuti dunhu reLanguedoc-Roussillon rakatanga kugarwa nemaGiriki akadyara minda yemizambiringa munzvimbo iyi muzana ramakore rechishanu BC. Kubva muna 5th kusvika 4th century, Languedoc yaizivikanwa nekugadzira waini dzemhando yepamusoro asi izvi zvakashanduka nekuuya kwezera remaindasitiri apo kugadzirwa kwakanangana. le gros rouge, waini yakawanda yakachipa yakachipa yetafura tsvuku inoshandiswa kugutsa vashandi vari kukura. Languedoc yakave nemukurumbira wekugadzira huwandu hukuru hwehurombo hwakapihwa huwandu hukuru kumauto eFrance munguva yeWWI. Sezvineiwo, kutarisa uku kwakapfuura munhoroondo, uye nzvimbo yacho zvino inogadzira waini dzemhando yepamusoro. Parizvino vagadziri vewaini vemunharaunda vanogadzira waini kubva kuBordeaux style reds kuenda kuProvence yakafuridzirwa marozi.

Gerard Bertrand

Makore apfuura, ndakava nerombo rakanaka rekudzokorora chikamu ichi chepasi uye ndakaunzwa kune biodynamic nzira yekukura mazambiringa nekuita winemaking kubva pakuona kwaGerard Bertrand. Chandaisaziva, yaive nhoroondo yekusagadzikana yedunhu uye kuti zviito nezviitiko zvevakapinda muindasitiri yewaini yezana ramakore rechi20 uye hurumende yeFrance yakagadzira hwaro hwemamiriro azvino eindasitiri yewaini mudunhu reOccitanie.

Nguva Yemhirizhonga

Montpelier Chikumi 9, 1907. Varatidziri vanopinda nechisimba muPlace de la Comedie

Isu hatiwanzo funga nezvevanhu vari muindasitiri yewaini sevashanduri uye kwete zvehondo; zvisinei, muna 1907 varimi vewaini vekuFrance kubva kuLanguedoc-Roussillon vakatungamira kuratidzira kwakawanda kunofungidzirwa kuve vanhu vangangosvika 600,000 - 800,000. Muna 1908 yezasi Languedoc yakanga ine chiverengero chavagari vapasi chemirioni imwe, naizvozvo, mumwe wavaLanguedocan vaviri voga voga airatidzira, achiremadza nharaunda nokudenha nyika.

French Winemakers Matter

Sei maFrench aive "ari mumaoko"? Vakatyisidzirwa newaini yaitengeswa kunze kwenyika kubva kuFrench colony yeAlgeria kuburikidza nechiteshi cheSete, uye nechaptalization (kuwedzera shuga isati yaviriswa kuti iwedzere doro). Nhengo dzeindasitiri yewaini dzakamukira, uye kuratidzira kwaisanganisira mazinga ese eindasitiri - kubva kuvarimi vemazambiringa nevashandi vemumapurazi kusvika kuvaridzi vezvivakwa nevagadziri vewaini. Indasitiri yewaini yakanga isati yasangana nedambudziko rakadaro kubva pakatanga phylloxera (1870-1880). Mamiriro ezvinhu akanga akaipa: vagadziri vewaini vakanga vasingakwanisi kutengesa chigadzirwa chavo zvichiita kuti vashaye mabasa uye munhu wose aitya kuti zvinhu zvaizowedzera kuipa.

Panguva iyoyo, hurumende yeFrance yaifunga kuti kuunza waini yeAlgeria kunze kwenyika yaiva pfungwa yakanaka senzira yekugadzirisa kuderera kwekugadzirwa kwewaini yeFrench iyo yakakonzerwa ne phylloxera. Kubva muna 1875 kusvika 1889, chikamu chimwe muzvitatu chenzvimbo yese yemuzambiringa weFrance chakaparadzwa netumbuyu tunodya mudzi uye kugadzirwa kwewaini yeFrance kwakadzikira nechikamu chinosvika makumi manomwe kubva muzana.

Sezvo phylloxera ichipararira, varimi vewaini vekuFrance vazhinji vakatamira kuAlgeria uye vakaunza tekinoroji yavo nehunyanzvi kunzvimbo uko mazambiringa ange achikura kubva mumireniyamu yekutanga BC; zvisinei, mazana emakore ekutonga kweMuslim akasika vagari vemo vakanga vasinganwi doro. Mashoko akanaka? Kushandiswa kwewaini muFrance zvakaramba zvakadaro! Mukuedza kupfupisa kugadzirisa dambudziko rekushomeka, hurumende yeFrance yakakurudzira kugadzirwa kwewaini munharaunda yayo yeAlgeria uku ichidzikamisa kutengwa kunze kwenyika kubva kuSpain kana Italy.

Pakagadziriswa dambudziko re phylloxera nekubatanidza midzi yekuAmerica pawaini yekuFrance, indasitiri yewaini yekuFrance yakatanga kuita zvakanaka uye zvishoma nezvishoma kugadzirwa kwakadzokera padanho rekutanga rematambudziko re65 miriyoni hectoliters. Nekudaro, mawaini ekuAlgeria akaramba achifashama pamusika nemutengo wakaderera (kuderera kweinopfuura 60 muzana mukati memakore makumi maviri nemashanu), zvichikanganisa vagadziri veFrance.

1910 postcard inoratidza mufananidzo wekutakura waini kubva kuOran, Algeria kuenda kuFrance. Mufananidzo kubva ku Wikimedia Commons

Kudyidzana

Vagadziri vewaini vekuFrance vaida miganhu yakaiswa pawaini inotengeswa kunze kwenyika uye vakatanga kuratidzira kuburikidza nekuratidzira mumigwagwa nemhirizhonga (zviito zvinotungamirira) kusanganisira mhirizhonga, kupambwa, uye kupiswa kwezvivakwa zveveruzhinji. muna June 9, 1907, the Kumukira (Grande Revolte, Kumukira kwevarimi vewaini veLanguedoc; Iyo inozivikanwawo sePaupers Revolt yeMidi) yaisanganisira kuramwa kwemitero, mhirizhonga, uye kumukira kwemauto mazhinji achigadzira mamiriro edambudziko akatsikirirwa nehurumende yaGeorge Clemenceau.

Kunyange zvazvo kumukira kwacho kwaiva kwenharaunda, National Assembly yaityira kuti boka iri rokumaodzanyemba rakanga riri kurwisa French Republic. Mukupindura zviratidziro izvi, hurumende yeFrance yakawedzera mutero wekutengesa waini kubva kuItaly neSpain inova imwe mhosho sezvo yakawedzera kudyiwa kwemitengo isina mutero kubva kuAlgeria.

Zvakare, vagadziri veFrance (kusanganisira Bordeaux, Champagne neBurgundy) vakatevera hurumende "ichivakurudzira" kuti vamise kupinda kwewaini yeAlgeria sezvo vaida kuchengetedza misika yavo "yewaini yepamusoro". Vakamanikidza kuunzwa kwemitemo mitsva, vachitsigira vamiriri vezvematongerwo enyika kubva kumatunhu aibvumirana nechinzvimbo chavo. Kutya uku kwakaratidza kuve manyepo uye kufamba kwakapedzisira kwapera mukubvumirana, kuodzwa mwoyo uye izvo zvaiita sekukunda kwedunhu repakati.

Chiteshi chengarava cheSete chakashanda sechakonzeresa dambudziko iri. Guta iri rakanga riri pakati penzvimbo huru yekugadzira uye yakawedzera njodzi yekuwedzeredza nekukurudzira kushandiswa kwemazambiringa eAramoni kubva muminda mikuru yemizambiringa - kugadzira huwandu. Waini dzekuAlgeria nekugadzirwa kwakawedzera kubva pa500,000,000 litres muna 1900 kusvika pa800,000,0000 muna 1904. Kuwedzera kwekugadzirwa uye kuwanikwa kwewaini yemanyepo nemasanganiswa kubva kuAlgerian waini zvakazadza musika wevatengi uye kunze kwenyika kwakawedzera muna 1907 uye kudzikira kuri kuita kusaenzana. mumutengo uye pakupedzisira kukonzera dambudziko rehupfumi.

Muna 1905 hurumende yeFrance yakadzika mutemo we“kubiridzira uye kunyepera,” ichiisa hwaro hwokugadzirwa kwewaini “yemusikirwo”. Chisungo 431 chaida kuti waini inotengeswa yaifanira kutaura zvakajeka kwakabva waini kudzivirira, "maitiro ekutengesa anotsausa," uye yakataura pachena kuti mutemo unoshandawo kuAlgeria. Mimwe mitemo yekudzivirira vagadziri vewaini yakaunza hukama pakati pe "mhando" yewaini, dunhu rayakagadzirwa (terroir), uye nzira yechinyakare yekugadzira, kumisikidza miganhu yedunhu yeBordeaux, Cognac, Armagnac uye Champagne ( 1908-1912) uye akatumidzwa sezvikumbiro.

Nehurombo, vagadziri vewaini muSouthern France havana kukwanisa kubatsirikana kubva kumitemo iyi kunyangwe iyo yakakumbirwa kurwisa mawaini eAlgeria zvakare. Hurumende yanga isingadi kubhadharisa mitero yewaini yekuAlgeria nekuti yaizokanganisa zvido zvevagari vekuFrance mhiri kwemakungwa uye yakanga isingaenderane nekubatanidzwa kweAlgeria sedunhu reFrance.

Pakupedzisira, iyo mitemo mitsva haina kukanganisa pamisika yewaini yeFrance uye waini yeAlgeria yakaramba ichifashamira misika yeFrance uye kugadzirwa kwewaini yeAlgeria kwakawedzera, zvichibatsirwa nemutemo unobvumira mabhanga ezvikwereti zvekurima kupa zvikwereti zvepakati uye zvenguva refu kuvagadziri vewaini. Vagari vekuEurope muAlgeria vakakwereta mari yakawanda uye vakaramba vachiwedzera minda yavo yemizambiringa nekurima. Zvakatozosvikira hurumende yeFrance yamisa waini yese isiri yechiFrench kushandiswa mumisanganiswa (yakatorwa nenyika dzese dzeEurope muna 1970) ndipo pakaita kudzikira kwekugadzirwa kwewaini yeAlgeria. Pamusoro pezvo, kubva muna 1888 kusvika 1893, vagadziri vewaini veMidi vakatanga chirongwa chakazara chekutsikisa waini yeAlgeria vachiti mazambiringa eAlgeria aisanganiswa newaini kubva kuBordeaux akaiswa muchetura. Oenologists haana kukwanisa kusimbisa zvakataurwa; zvisinei, makuhwa akapfuurira kusvika kuma1890.

Hurumende yeAlgeria yakatendeukira kuSoviet Union semusika unobvira uye vakagadzira kondirakiti yemakore manomwe ye7 miriyoni hectoliter yewaini pagore - asi mutengo wacho waive wakachipa zvakanyanya kuti vagadziri vewaini vekuAlgeria vakwanise kuita purofiti; pasina misika yekunze iripo, kugadzirwa kwakadonha. Pakanga pasina musika wepamba nekuti Algeria yaive uye inoramba ichinyanya kuve nyika yeMuslin.

Kunyangwe iyo mitemo yaikurudzirwa nemamiriro ezvinhu nekutengwa kwewaini yeAlgeria nemitengo yakaderera, kukanganisa kwave kwakareba. Muna 1919, mutemo wakataura kuti kana chichemo chikashandiswa nevagadziri vasina mvumo, vaigona kutongerwa mhosva dzavo. Muna 1927, mutemo wakaisa zvirambidzo pamhando dzemazambiringa uye nzira dzeviticulture dzinoshandiswa pazita rewaini. Muna 1935, Appellations d'Origine Controllees (AOC) yakarambidza kugadzirwa kwete kune chaiwo mabviro enharaunda asiwo kune chaiwo maitiro ekugadzira anosanganisira mazambiringa akasiyana-siyana, hushoma hwedoro, uye yakawanda yemunda wemizambiringa. Mutemo uyu wakaumba hwaro hwemitemo yeAOC neDOC iyo yakakosha mumisika yewaini yeEuropean Union (EU).

© Dr. Elinor Garely. Ichi chinyorwa chekopirisita, kusanganisira mapikicha, chingangodaro chichiburitswa pasina mvumo yakanyorwa kubva kumunyori

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Dr. Elinor Garely - akakosha kuTN uye mupepeti mune mukuru, waini.travel

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