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Iyo Historical Paintings yeAnozivikanwa American Hotel Artist

mufananidzo nerubatsiro rweS.Turkel
rakanyorwa Linda S. Hohnholz

Mukutanga kwema1920s, Edward Hopper akagadzira mifananidzo uye mavhavha eTavern Topics, yakabudiswa uye yakagoverwa neWaldorf Astoria. hotera muNew York, uye muna 1924 na1925, akadhirowa gumi nemasere akajeka mavhavha emagazini yekutengesa Hotel Management.

Uyu muimbi wekuAmerica, Edward Hopper, aizivikanwa nekufarira mahotera, motels, dzimba dzevashanyi, uye nehupamhi hwemabasa ekugamuchira vaenzi. Kubva 1920 kusvika 1925 akashanda semuratidziri wekutengesa weHotera Management uye Tavern Topics kubva kuGreat Depression kuburikidza neCold War. Akawedzera ruzivo rwake rwemabasa ekugamuchira vaenzi semuenzi anogarogara munzvimbo dzakati wandei panzendo dzemota refu dzaakatora nemukadzi wake, muimbi Josephine Hopper. Kutanga pakati pe-1920s uye kuburikidza nekutanga 1960s, Hopper akaongorora zvidzidzo zvekugamuchira vaenzi mumifananidzo, watercolors, kudhirowa, uye kudhindwa. Dzimwe nguva aitumidza mabasa aya se "hotera" kana "motel," asi kazhinji aisadaro. Inopfuura hafu inosanganiswa yemasaiti, isina hushoma huwandu hwekugadzira uye rezinesi rehunyanzvi.

Edward naJo vaigara huzhinji hwehupenyu hwavo muManhattan, iyo, semamwe matunhu emunyika yose, yakasangana nehombe huru yekuvaka hotera muchikamu chekutanga chezana ramakore rechimakumi maviri. Mari inogadzirwa nehotera yakadonha neanopfuura makumi maviri neshanu muzana mumakore ekuderera kwe25 kusvika 1929, izvo zvaive zvisiri zvekudzivisa Hopper.

Pakati peHondo Dzepasi Pose, Hopper akagadzira kanenge maviri etchings nependi mishanu achigadzira zvivakwa zvemahotera akasiyana siyana emumaguta-mamwe aaiziva kubva achigara muNew York, vamwewo vachidzokera kumifananidzo yaitaurwa mumapeji eHotera Management mukati memakore aaigara. yakagadzira zvifukidzo zvayo. Kazhinji, zvivharo zvinoratidza vakaroorana vakanaka vachitamba, vachidya uye vachikwira chikepe munzvimbo yehotera.

Vachitarisa kubva pakakwirira pemba yavo pa3 Washington Square North muNew York, veHoppers vangadai vakasangana nezvivakwa zvakasanganiswa zvekurojesa, kusanganisira nzvimbo ine nhurikidzwa gumi pa53 Washington Square South. Yakagadzirwa naMcKim, Mead & White uye yakavakwa muna 1893, ichi chaitove chikamu cheHotera Judson, mari yaibuda yaibatsira Chechi yeJudson Memorial yaive pedyo. Hopper akatora maonero aya mumufananidzo waNovember, Washington Square, waakatanga muna 1932 uye akawedzera zvinhu zvedenga muna 1959. Shamwari yeHoppers, munyori wemifananidzo John Sloan, aigara paHotel Judson kwemakore masere, kusvikira adzingwa. New York University (iyo yakanga yambotora nzvimbo yacho). Iyo ine nhurikidzwa nhatu, yakapiswa yeorenji chimiro kuruboshwe kuruboshwe mushanduro yakapendwa iImba yeGenius boardinghouse, pa61 Washington Square South, iyo, panguva dzakasiyana kubva kuma1910 kusvika kuma1930, yaigara maartist, vanyori, vananyanduri, uye vaimbi, kusanganisira Theodore Dreiser, John Dos Passos, Eugene O'Neill, naAlan Seeger.

Apartment hotels ari pakati pezvimiro zvinofungidzira mumhando dzekuvaka Hopper dzakagadzirwa muzvinyorwa zvakasarudzwa senge House at Dusk. Dzimba dzekugara dzemumadhorobha dzine mukurumbira dzinopa marendi enguva pfupi, idzi dzaive dzimba dzekugara asi dziine zvemuhotera. Idzi nzvimbo dzepakati-yepakati dzakasanganiswa nzvimbo dzaive nemayuniti akawanda ane yekugezera yakagovaniswa uye kazhinji yaive nemakamuri ekugara ane piyano uye yaipihwa resitorendi, doorman, uye zuva nezuva musikana webasa.

Mhedzisiro yeanosvika mapfumbamwe ezvidzidzo akadhirowa, Hotel Lobby, ingangove ndiyo yakanyanya kunangana neHopper mabatiro etime yebasa rekugamuchira vaenzi.

Agere pachair yakasimudzwa, mumwe mukadzi wechiduku akapfeka rokwe rebhuruu anoverenga bhuku rake, akatsenhama pamakona anoratidza emumwe wake akura ari pafoyer. Pamadziro ekuseri, kuona kuburikidza nerima rakavharwa pamusuwo wakavhurika kunoratidza resitorendi ine matafura akavharwa nerineni. Mitsetse yakaumbwa pasi inoratidzira misimboti yedhizaini yenguva inobata kapeti senzira yekutungamira mhomho uye kuona kuiswa kwefenicha. Zvakatonyanya kukosha kune chaunga uye kutonga kwemamiriro ekunze isuwo rinotenderera-rakatemwa kuruboshwe muHotera Lobby. Pamifananidzo yese yezvivakwa zvemudhorobha yeHopper, magonhi anotenderera anoonekwa mune zviviri chete zvezvidzidzo zvebasa iri uye mune imwe chete mufananidzo (Sunlight in a Cafeteria, 1958, muYale University Art Gallery). Kusiyana kwegonhi rinotenderera kwave kuripo kubva pakati pezana ramakore regumi nepfumbamwe nechinangwa chekudzora kufefetedza uye kuchengetedza tembiricha nguva dzose munzvimbo dzeveruzhinji. Risingabvumiri mhepo kupinda ichibva kunze, suo rinotenderera rakanga, mumashoko omutsigiri wapakuvamba, “raivharwa nguva dzose.” Izvi zvinobatsira kutsanangura kuti Hotel Lobby, pendi yakapera muna Ndira 1943, uye ine vaviri vakapfeka zvipfeko zvechando, inogonawo kuratidza mukadzi asina jasi akapfeka rokwe remaoko mapfupi.

Mazhinji e18 anozivikanwa Hopper HM epamberi mavhavha akaitwa pakati pema1920s. Kazhinji, zvivharo zvinoratidza mumwe kana vaviri vakanaka vakaroorana vachinakidzwa nechiitiko chakadai sekutamba, kudya uye kuiswa kwechikepe vachitarisana nehotera yakagadzirwa. Hopper akashandisa mahotera chaiwo-Ohio's Cincinnatian Hotel uye New York's Mohonk Mountain House-sekurudziro pazvivharo zviviri. Mavara akareruka emifananidzo uye zviitwa zvinesimba kusimuka kwakasiyana kubva kumabasa aHopper ane mukurumbira, akadai sa “Automat” kana “Nighthawks” inofananidzira. The Hoppers, Edward naJosephine [uyewo mupendi], vaidya masikati mazuva ese paThe Hotel Dixie muNew York.

Uye pamwe nekutora pfungwa dzekugamuchira vaenzi kuti zvese nezvechiitiko chevaenzi, VMFA yaenda nhanho imwe kure, ichigadzirazve imba yehotera yakaonekwa muHopper's 1957 basa "Western Hotel."

Edward naJo vakatanga kurenda dzimba dzechirimo muSouth Truro paCape Cod muna 1930 uye vaizotenga nzvimbo vobva vavaka imba ikoko makore mashoma gare gare. Pakazosvika ma1940, Cape Cod yakanga ine dzimba dzakawanda dzevashanyi-dzakagadzirirwa dzimba dzemhuri imwe chete dzinopa makamuri ekugara kwenguva pfupi, kazhinji mumwaka. Achifarira zvikuru zvivakwa zvemumba, Hopper akapenda dzimba dzakawanda dzevashanyi pamusoro pebasa rake refu, asi anoratidzika mukutarisa kuve ainyanya kufarira mune imwe nzvimbo yekugara muProvincetown paCape Cod. Akapedza husiku hurefu hwakati wandei akapaka pamberi pechivakwa, achigadzira mifananidzo, zvichikonzera mufananidzo unopa maonero mumakamuri epamberi emba-sezviri pachena, vagari vemo vakashamisika kuti nyanzvi yaiitei, akagara ipapo muBuick yake achidhirowa kure.

VaHoppers vakatora nzendo refu dzenguva nenguva vachitsvaga nyaya mhiri kweNew England, West, neMexico, pakati pedzimwe nzvimbo. Pamajaunti aya, vakagara kumisha yevashanyi uye, pakupedzisira, sezvo mari yaEdward yakawedzera, mumamoteri nematare emotokari. Zvikamu zvemadhayari aJo - anofukidza pakati-1930s kusvika 1960s, uye ichangobva kupihwa kuProvincetown Art Association neMuseum-inoburitsa peji nepeji yetsananguro yakawedzerwa yenzvimbo idzi dzekugara uye manzwiro evaviri pamusoro pazvo. Imwe yeaya anoyevedza uye akareba ezvinyorwa izvi inotaura nezvekugara kwavo paWeseman Motor Court muEl Paso kubva Zvita 15 kusvika Zvita 22, 1952. Hopper akapenda Western Motel panguva yekudyidzana kuHuntington Hartford Foundation muPacific Palisades, California, asi iyo canvas zvakare inomutsa tsananguro yaJo uye yemazuva ano inokurukura pekugara muEl Paso.

The Hoppers vakatora nzendo refu shanu kuenda kuMexico pakati pa1943 na1955, kwavakashanyirawo matunhu akati wandei muUnited States; vakafamba nechitima muna 1943, asi kune mamwe majenji vakafamba nemotokari. Vaigara vachigadzira nzvimbo zvichienderana nekunaka kwedzimba dzavo uye maonero aipihwa nekamuri yavo uye kubva padenga remba. Zvizhinji zvezvatinoziva nezvenguva yaHopper muMexico zvinobva mutsamba dzevaviri pahotera nemotel letterhead nemapositadhi. Kufambidzana kubva parwendo rwake rwekutanga kuenda kuMexico, Saltillo Rooftops anonyora stovepipe yedenga rehotera yake paGuarhado House (apo iye naJo vakagara) kumberi kuti aenzanise kusimuka kwemakomo eSierra Madre kumashure. MuMonterrey Cathedral, anodzokera kumuitiro wake wekushandisa pekugara (munyaya iyi Hotel Monterrey) semudziyo wekugadzira dhizaini yekuona mahotera nezvimwe zvimiro-zvikwangwani zvakadzvanywa zveHotera Bermuda zvinoonekwa pazasi kuruboshwe. Mahotera nemamotere anogona kupa dimikira rinobatsira pakunzwisisa zvakawanda zvebasa raHopper. Akatora sezvinei kuti mahotera nependi zvinopa zviitiko zvenguva pfupi, kushandira vanhu vakawanda, uye, pakupedzisira, manyepo akagadzirwa zvikuru. Hopper aiona hunyanzvi hwake - pendi yake uye watercolors kunyanya - senzvimbo dzekuisa mariri kwenguva pfupi uye paari kucherekedza gare gare nezvikamu zvakaenzana zvekufungidzira uye kufungidzira. Makumi matanhatu nepfumbamwe eiyi mifananidzo, mavara emvura, mifananidzo, madhindindi, uye makavha emagazini anoratidzwa-pamwe chete nemabasa makumi matatu neshanu pamusoro pedingindira revamwe vanyori-muratidziro yaEdward Hopper neAmerican Hotel paVirginia Museum of Fine Arts muRichmond. .

Zvichida zvakakodzera kuti chiratidziro chakarongeka uye chinoita kuti chivepo. VaHoppers vakashanyira Richmond kakawanda. Hunyanzvi hwake hwaizoratidzwa mune zvaizotevera kuratidzwa kwemakore maviri. Hopper akadzokera kumuseum muna 1953 kune Mutongi weJury show, panguva iyo museum yakatenga Imba paDusk. Mufananidzo wekushanya uku unoratidza Hopper neRichmond muimbi Bell Worsham vakamira pamberi pependi yaHopper Early Sunday Morning. Vachitevera kutaurirana kunofadza, kuburikidza nepekugara kwevaviri ava pakushanya uku, mutungamiriri wemuseum, Leslie Cheek Jr., akavimbisa Hopper, “Muri kuRichmond muchange muchigara muJefferson Hotel, chimiro cheBeaux-Arts ndinotenda kuti muchanakidzwa. .” Paive nemahotera akawanda umo Cheek angadai akaisa Hopper, asi akave nechokwadi chekuti muimbi aigara panzvimbo inozivikanwa se "yakanakisa muSouth."

Basa raHopper reHotera Management rakaita zvechokwadi, rakapesvedzera basa rake. Zvinhu zvaakaitira Hotel Management—uye kunyange mamwe mapikicha nezviziviso nezvimwe zvinyorwa—zvakagovera dura remifananidzo nemifungo yaaizodzokera kwairi nguva nenguva.

Stanley Turkel yakasarudzwa sa2020 Historian wegore neHistoric Hotels of America, chirongwa chepamutemo cheNational Trust for Historic Preservation, icho chaakambodaidzwa kunzi 2015 na2014.Turkel ndiye mupepeti wehotera akaburitswa zvakanyanya muUnited States. Iye anoshanda yake yekutarisisa hotera tsika achishanda sehunyanzvi chapupu mune zvine chekuita nehotera zviitiko, inopa asset manejimendi uye hotera franchising kubvunza. Iye anozivikanwa sa Master Hotel Supplier Emeritus neiyo Educational Institute yeAmerican Hotel uye Lodging Association. [email inodzivirirwa] 917-628-8549

Bhuku rake idzva "Great American Hotel Architects Vhoriyamu 2" ichangoburitswa.

Mamwe Akatsikiswa Mabhuku ehotera:

• Vakuru vemahotera eAmerican: Mapiyona eiyo Indasitiri yeHotera (2009)

• Yakavakirwa Kupedzisira: 100+ Yemakore-Mahotera Mahotera muNew York (2011)

• Yakavakirwa Kuguma: 100+ Makore-Mahara Mahotera Kumabvazuva kweMississippi (2013)

• Hotera Mavens: Lucius M. Boomer, George C. Boldt, Oscar weWaldorf (2014)

• Vakuru vemahotera eAmerican Vhoriyamu 2: Mapiyona eiyo Indasitiri yeHotera (2016)

Yakavakwa Kwekupedzisira: 100+ Makore-Mahara Mahotera Kumadokero kweMississippi (2017)

• Hotel Mavens Vhoriyamu 2: Henry Morrison Flagler, Henry Bradley Plant, Carl Graham Fisher (2018)

• Yakakura American Hotera Vagadziri Vhoriyamu I (2019)

• Hotera Mavens: Vhoriyamu 3: Bob naLarry Tisch, Ralph Hitz, Cesar Ritz, Curt Strand

Ese aya mabhuku anogona kuodhwa kubva kuAuthorHouse nekushanya www.vashorganism.ru  nekudzvanya pamusoro webhuku racho.

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Linda S. Hohnholz

Linda Hohnholz anga ari mupepeti mukuru we eTurboNews kwemakore mazhinji.
Anoda kunyora uye anoteerera zvakanyanya kune zvakadzama.
Iye ari zvakare mutariri wezvose zvemukati zvemukati uye zvekuburitsa zvinoburitswa.

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