African Tourism Bhodhi Kuputsa Kufamba Nhau Nyika | Dunhu tsika nemagariro Enda nhau Tanzania

Pfuma yeNyika muTanzania Yakakodzera Kuchengetwa

Lerai Forest

Mhosva dzekudzingwa nechisimba kwenharaunda dzechivanhu mu Ngorongoro Conservation Area (NCA) kuchamhembe kweTanzania ndeenhema uye anotsausa.

NCA inopa yambiro yenyaya yekugara kwevanhu munzvimbo dzakachengetedzwa mhuka dzesango pasina hurongwa hwekubatana uye kuteedzera.

Zviremera zveTanzania zvakaratidza huchenjeri, tsitsi, uye nehanya zvakanyanya mukugadzirisa gakava rekuchengetedzwa kwenyika nekunze kwenyika.

Iyo NCA senzvimbo yakachengetedzwa, inozivikanwa seWorld Heritage Site, World Biosphere Reserve neGlobal Geopark, yakafanana nedzimwe.

Imba yekuumbwa kwe geologic kubva kuPangea makondinendi asati aumbwa; paleontological zvinyorwa zvekushanduka kwevanhu zvichidzokera kumashure mamiriyoni mana emakore kusanganisira yekutanga tsoka dzekufamba kwakatwasuka hominids; uye mhuka dzesango dzakanakisa dzemuAfrica kusanganisira ine mukurumbira Serengeti migration.

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Mukuenzanisa neAmerica, NCA inobata zvakasanganiswa zvinokwezva zveYellowstone, Lava Beds, Mesa Verde, Petrified Forest, uye Crater national park.

Iyo NCA, inofukidza 8,292 km2, yakasungwa neGreat Rift Valley kumaodzanyemba uye mapani mapfupi eSerengeti kuchamhembe. Rimu rayo rekumaodzanyemba rinoratidzwa neatatu ane mukurumbira pasi rose emakoronga emakomo akatsakatika - Ngorongoro, Olmoti, uye Empakai - uye akasarudzika makore masango emakomo.

Ngorongoro crater ndiyo hombe isingapindiki pasi rose ine nzvimbo yakadzika 250 km2 yakakomberedzwa nemadziro avhareji 600 m. Ibindu chairo reEdheni rakazara nenzou, zvipembere, shumba, ingwe, nyati, mhembwe, flamingo, cranes, nezvimwe.

Kumucheto kwekuchamhembe kweNCA kudivi reLake Ndutu kune nzvimbo dzekuberekera mhuka dzinosvika miriyoni imwe nehafu dzinoumba kutama kunoshamisa kweSerengeti. Pakati pane makiromita gumi nemana kureba kwemupata weOldupai uko Richard naMary Leakey vakafukunura zvinyorwa zvezvisaririra zvenhoroondo yechisikigo nekushanduka-shanduka kwevanhu kubva kumashure mamiriyoni mana emakore.

Vanonyora kushanduka kwemhando ina dzakasiyana dzehominids dzinosanganisira "nutcracker man" Australopithecus boisei makore angangoita mamiriyoni 1.75 apfuura; Homo habilis, mugadziri wematurusi ematombo ekutanga pakati pe1.8 kusvika 1.6 miriyoni makore apfuura; Homo erectus, iyo yakakura-muviri, yakakura uropi hominine yakatangira vanhu vekare vemazuvano Homo sapiens.

Nhoroondo yeNCA ichangoburwa yevanhu inoshamisa zvakafanana. Makore angangoita 10,000 XNUMX apfuura nzvimbo iyi yaigarwa nevavhimi vakaita saHadzabe, avo vanoshandisa mutauro unobva pama”click” akafanana nee”san” kana kuti maBushmen ekumaodzanyemba. Mazana mashoma chete ndiwo anogara kumucheto kweLake Eyasi, kumaodzanyemba kweNCA.

Makore angangoita zviuru zviviri apfuura maIraqi agro-pastoralists kubva kunzvimbo dzakakwirira dzeEthiopia vakaonekwa munzvimbo iyi. Marudzi eCentral African Bantu akasvika munzvimbo 2,000 - 500 makore apfuura.

Varwi vevafundisi Datooga vakasvika munharaunda makore 300 apfuura uye vakadzinga vagari vekare. VaMaasai vakauya nerwizi rweNile kuti vasvike kuNCA pakati pemakore ekuma1800, makumi mashoma emakore vavhimi veEurope nevatsvakurudzi vasati vasvika panzvimbo.

VaMaasai nevaDatooga vakarwa hondo dzinotyisa umo vaMaasai vakakunda. Nhasi, vaMaasai ndivo vane madzinza ane masimba uye akatekeshera muNCA yose ane masimba ezvematongerwo enyika emuno nemunyika achibatsirwa nemapoka akasimba anotsigira mumaguta makuru eEurope.

Muna 1959, Greater Serengeti-Ngorongoro game reserve yakakamurwa kuita zvikamu zviviri. Serengeti National Park isina pekugara kwevanhu uye Ngorongoro Conservation Area inogara misha yevafundisi.

Zvinyorwa zvenhoroondo kubva panguva iyoyo zvishoma uye hazvina kukwana. Muna 1959, zvinyorwa zvekoloni zvinofungidzira, kuti vangangoita 4,000 vedzinza reMaasai vaigara muNCA uye nhamba yakafanana yakatama kubva kuSerengeti neboka remombe dzingangoita 40,000 - 60,000.

Pari zvino fungidziro dzeDatooga neHadzabe munzvimbo iyi hadzipo. Nhasi nharaunda dzeNCA dziri kuramba dzichigara dzakakura kusvika pa110,000 nemombe, hwai nembudzi dzinopfuura miriyoni. NCA iri pasi pekumanikidzwa kwakanyanya kwehuwandu hwevanhu hwekuwanda kwenharaunda dzakagara dzine zvimiro zvechigarire mukati menzvimbo yakadzivirirwa uye nekukurumidza kukura kwekurima nemadhorobha kunopinda muganho wekumaodzanyemba.

NCA yanhasi iri kure nezvaitarisirwa nemutemo wa1959 - nharaunda shoma dzevafundisi dzenguva pfupi dzinogara pamwe chete uye dzichibatsira mukuchengetedza zviwanikwa zvenzvimbo. Mamiriro ezvinhu aripo haabatsiri nharaunda nekuchengetedza.

Kutendeseka kwezvakatipoteredza kweNCA, uye yakakura Serengeti ecosystem, iri pasi pekunetseka kwakanyanya kwakasimba nekuderedzwa kusati kwamboitika uye budiriro. Mararamiro enharaunda dziri mukati meNCA anoratidza urombo pane ehanzvadzi dzavo dzinogara kunze dzine mukana mukuru wehutano, dzidzo, uye misika.

Kuwedzera nzvimbo dzekugara muNCA zvinonzwisisika kunoda mamiriro ekugara akafanana neaya anofarirwa nehama dzavo kunze. Iko kupokana kwazvino kwekusagadzikana uye kusasangana tarisiro, kusagutsikana kwakadzama, uye remangwana risina chokwadi mhedzisiro yemakore anopfuura makumi matanhatu ekuedzwa uye kukanganisa nemazano akawanda ekurudziro.

Sarudzo nhasi iri kuwedzera kujeka. Kana kubvumira nharaunda dzeNCA mabhenefiti akafanana neanopiwa kunze kweNCA zvichikonzera kuwedzera kwehuwandu hwevanhu uye kusimukira kusvika pakuparara kusingadzivisiki nekuzara kwehunhu hwerenje kana kupa nharaunda dzeNCA sarudzo dzekuzvidira dzekugara patsva kunze kwemiganhu yenzvimbo yekuchengetedzwa.

VaMaasai, sezvakangoita Datooga neHadzabe vachagara vachifarira kuwana nzvimbo dzetsika dzavo muNCA. Kubudirira kwezvematongerwo enyika kwakonzera kudzikira kwazvino kweNCA ecology nenharaunda. Kutsunga kwezvematongerwo enyika kunodiwa kugadzirisa nzira pasati pasisina chekuchengeta.

Zvakarongwa neMutungamiriri weTanzania, Samia, zvinopa mukana wekuronga ramangwana rinobatsira kune NCA nenharaunda dzayo. President Samia vaudza bazi ravo reLand, Housing, and Settlement Development kuti ripe maeka 521,000 XNUMX enzvimbo huru kunze kweNCA kuti vanhu vagare vachizvidira.

Muna 2022, vanhu vangangosvika zviuru makumi mana kubva kudzimba zviuru zvisere vanotarisirwa kugamuchira kupihwa. Hurumende inoti zviuru makumi maviri nezviviri vavo vasina zvipfuyo sevarombo. Uyezve, 40,000 8,000 vanorondedzerwa sevarombo zvikuru. Imba yega yega ichagashira imba yekurara 22,000 pa 18,000 acres ine mamwe maeka mashanu enzvimbo yekurima pamwe nekushandiswa kwemafuro emafuro.

Nharaunda dzakagariswa patsva dzinosanganisira zvikoro, nzvimbo dzekurapa, misika, nenzvimbo dzekutandarira. NCA ichapa chikafu kumhuri dzakagariswa patsva kwemwedzi inosvika gumi nemisere kuitira kuti zvinhu zvifambe zvakanaka. Kurudziro dzakasiyana dzemari nemitengo yekutamisa zvinopihwa kumhuri dzeNCA dzinoda kutamira kune imwe nyika yavanoda.

Muna 2022, vamwe vanhu zviuru zviviri kubva kudzimba mazana mana vanotarisirwa kuwana izvi zvinokurudzira. Izvi pamwe nekuwedzera kurudziro yekutamisa vanhu vachizvidira zvicharamba zviripo kusvika muna 2,000. Mutungamiriri wekutanga weTanzania, Julius Nyerere, pakuwana kuzvitonga kwenyika yake muna 400, akazivisa Arusha Manifesto achivimbisa kuzvipira kwenyika mukuchengetedza mhuka dzesango kuti zvibatsire veTanzania nenyika huru.

Kuita kwaPresident Samia kwekuona kure kunoendesa nhaka iyoyo mberi. Kurambira nechimiro chiripo hakuna basa, sezvo kunetsana kuri kuramba kuchiitika, kusina kugadziriswa, kunozotungamira kune kumwe kuparara kwehunhu hweNCA hwepasi rose hwetsika nemagariro.

Dr. Freddy Manongi ndivo Conservation Commissioner weNgorongoro Conservation Area Authority vanotungamira NCA. Dr. Kaush Arha vakamboshanda semutevedzeri weAsst. Secretary. Zvemhuka dzemusango nemaPaki uye Associate Solicitor kuUS Dept yeInterior.

Chinyorwa chakanyorwa na: Freddy Manongi naKaush Arha

Nezvomunyori

Adam Ihucha - eTN Tanzania

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