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Kuchengetwa Nemhiko: Iyo Yakakurumbira Oberammergau Passion Play Yadzoka

mufananidzo nerubatsiro rwe omerammergau.de
rakanyorwa Max Haberstroh

Mushure memakore maviri ekumirira uye nemwedzi mitanhatu yekudzidzira kwakasimba, iyo 42nd Oberammergau Passion Play yakagadzwa kutanga muna Chivabvu 14, 2022.

Tarisiro - Against All Odds

Muna 1632 mukati meHondo Yemakore Makumi Matatu, mauto eSweden anopamba akaunza denda racho mujinga memakomo eAlps uye pakupedzisira akasvika kuOberammergau. "Denda riri pamberi pemusuwo, uye hapana anoda kuripinza - asi rufu rwatovapo," anodaro mucheri weguva mumutambo weOberammergau theatre 'Denda'. Icho chidimbu chinoreva 1633, ichiita nhoroondo yekumashure yePassion Play, sevagari veOberammergau vakapika kuti vacharidza Passion makore gumi ega ega, kana vakaponeswa kubva kuBlack Death. Kwapera gore, denda racho rakamira, uye vagari vomuOberammergau vakachengeta vimbiso yavo.

Oberammergau ndeimwe yemisha inoyevedza kwazvo yeAmmer Valley muBavaria, ine dzimba dzayo dzakashongedzwa nemavara uye akawanda emashopu uye zvitoro zvinotengesa zveumhizha nemabasa emaoko, inovhara girazi pendi nekuveza matanda - zvese zvakaitwa nemaoko nekuzvipira uye, hongu, ne'chishuwo': Musha uyu 'Herrgottschnitzer' vavezi vemapuranga vane mukurumbira, uye mavakirwo emachechi nedzimba dzeumambo mudunhu iri symphony izere nejoie-de-vivre inoratidzwa mubaroque uye rococo.

Imwe yezvishongo zveOberammergau zvakawanda zvekuvaka ndiyo 'Pilatushaus' (Imba yaPirato), yakavakwa muna 1774 uye yakashongedzwa nemifananidzo inoshamisa mumutauro weBavarian-Austrian ('Lüftlmalereien').

Chivako chacho chine zita rakabva pamufananidzo ‘wakatongerwa Jesu naPondiyo Pirato’: Mubvunzo wokunyomba waPirato, usingapindurwi kuna Jesu “Chokwadi chii?” anogona kunge akanetsa mukadzi wake aibatwa nehope dzinotyisa kupfuura iye - asi chokwadi zvanga zviri mupfungwa dzeavo vaironga Passion Play, VaChristian Stückl kunyanya, director wePlay.

Kunze kwekutsvaga kwayo kwemetaphysical, chokwadi dzimwe nguva chinongobva musimba rechokwadi.

Kubuda kweCovid-19 anopfuura makore maviri apfuura nemhedzisiro yayo yaive - uye ichiripo - chakadaro. Ichokwadi kuti 'denda', sekudaidzwa kwarinoitwa, rakakonzera shanduko. Muchokwadi, Covid-19 akaisa kudyidzana kwepasi rose seWestern democracies 'yakatsigira panacea yekugadzira shanduko nekutengeserana pamuyedzo wakakura: Shanduko yakauya, asi kwete nenzira yaidiwa.

PaOberammergau inotungamira kuda kutamba timu yaifanira kukanzura mwaka we2020 theatre - kuvhundutsa munhu wese. Iyo Play yakamisikidzwa kuna 2022 - gadziriso ine hungwaru, kunyangwe zvaireva kuti hapana zhizha remitambo kwemakore maviri. Kuti muna 2014 UNESCO yakazivisa Passion Play senhaka yetsika isingabatike ingangove yakakosha kuyeukwa, asi kunze kwekukanganisa mupfungwa, zvakakosha zvinobatika zvakatemerwa hurongwa hwekurarama kwevanhu, maererano nekurasikirwa kwehupfumi nekushaikwa kwemabasa. Ko iyo Passion Play haifanirwe kubatwa, shure kwezvose - uye nekupokana nezvose?

Zvine kusuwa uye nekuodzwa mwoyo, vatambi veOberammergau vakagerwa vhudzi refu zvakare, mahotera akabviswa makamuri, vatambi vakaisa zvipfeko zvavo muwadhiropu, uye munhu wese akadzokera kuhupenyu hwavo hwemazuva ese. Sezvinobvumwa, pane mutsauko pakati peDenda panguva iyoyo neCovid nhasi, tisingarevi maitiro evanhu pamusoro penzira yekutarisana nedambudziko. Musiyano haungave wakanyanya kusimba: Kuchema kwevanhu kwakasiyana kuna Mwari uye minamato yetariro inofamba mumakereke akatsvikinyidzana mukati meDenda makore 400 apfuura, vachipikisana nevanoongorora hutachiona hweTV vachikumbira kuti vabaiwe nhomba, nekupfura kwakazoita 'booster' sedambudziko rebazi rezvehutano. 'encore'! 

Nguva dzakachinja kubva muzana remakore rechi17. Mazuvano mafungiro ari kuMadokero anonyepedzera kujekerwa: Chitendero chingave chichibvunzwa kana kuti chaderera kuva matunhu akasimba, Chechi yarasa pesvedzero, uye zvikumbiro zvehurumende zvekubatana zvinoramba zviri zvemuromo, apo zvinongedzo kusarudzo dzeGallup zvinopa zvikonzero zvakakwana zvekusaita basa. Asi maiwe, kunyangwe vachizeza, kazhinji vachipokana, uye dzimwe nguva mhirizhonga, pakanga paine sarudzo dzinosunga padenda. 'Simba retsika rechokwadi' rakazviratidza zvakare rakasimba zvakakwana zvekugonesa vanhu kumamiriro ezvinhu matsva - asi zvakadaro kuti tirambe tichirarama neruvimbo uye netarisiro ine hutano - pane zvese zvipingamupinyi.

Iyo Passion Play Yadzoka - Anti-Semitism Yabuda

Izvi zvinonyanya kudiwa, sezvo kwaiva nemashoko anotyisa pamusoro pehondo yakakonzerwa neRussia muUkraine, nemigumisiro yayo yose inotyisa. Kunoiswa mugadziriro ino, Kuda kwaKristu kunoratidzira ngwavaira yechokwadi yorudzi rwomunhu, sezvo vamwe vatungamiriri vanoratidzika kuva vakanganwa kuti kuuraya inzira isina kururama mukutsvaka mufaro.

Sezvo huwandu hwehuwandu hwakaderera huchiwedzera kubviswa kwezvirambidzo zveCovid, ruremekedzo rwenzira dzekudzivirira rwakapa nzira yekureruka, zvichiita kuti tirambe tichinyepedzera kuti denda rapera. Hazvisizvo!

Zvakangodaro, Mutambo wadzoka: Mushure memakore maviri ekumirira uye nemwedzi mitanhatu yekudzokorora kwakasimba, iyo 42nd Oberammergau Passion Play yakatanga kutanga muna Chivabvu 14, 2022, uye Christian Stückl anofara: "Tine chishuwo chisingaperi chekuunza Passion yedu. Tamba kusvika padanho uye tinokurudzirwa zvikuru. "

Chokwadi, kukurudzira kunogona kunzwika, uye shanduko dzeMutambo dzinopa mataurirwo matsva: Kutora chikamu kwakavhurika kune vagari, vangave kana vasiri nhengo dzekereke yekatorike kana mapurotesitendi, maKristu, maJuda kana maMuslim vagari. Muna 2015 Mr. Abdullah Kenan Karaca, mugari weOberammergau ane midzi yeTurkey, akava Mutevedzeri Mukuru wePassion Play uye akapiwa kuti atambe Nikodemus, muJudha mukuru. Basa raJudhasi, zvakare, rine hanya: Iri kutambidzwa nemutambi ane nhoroondo yekutama, VaCengiz Görür.

Kutenda kuna Christian Stückl, zvisaririra zvekuvenga vaJudha zvakabviswa.

“Murangariro wakakomba wokushora vaJudha wakanga watova pachena mumaKristu apakuvamba eEurope, dzidziso yawo huru pomero yokuti vaJudha vakanga vane mhaka yorufu rwaKristu. Havana kufuratira zvachose chokwadi chokuti akanga ari Pondiyo Pirato weRoma akatongera Kristu rufu.” Stückl anopa mamwe manzwisisiro ake: “Zvakajeka munguva pfupi kuchikwata chedu chepamusoro chePassion Play kuti gakava harifaniri kukonzerwa nokumanikidzirwa. Chikwata chedu chepakati chakatizira kuIsrael, chichiedza kudzidza zvakananga kubva kuchiJudha. Ngapave pasina kupokana: muOberammergau antisemitism haina nzvimbo, kana muMutambo kana muhupenyu hwevatambi.

Kutanga kutsva

Semuna 1990, 2000 na2010, kudzokororwa kweMutambo muna 2020 kune chinangwa chekusimudzira mutambo nenzira yazvino. Zvikonzero zvakasiyana: Vateereri vemazuva ano vakasiyana, uye mibvunzo mitsva yauya. Ani nani anoda kusimbisa maonero eKushuva uye Kumuka kwaKristu, haafaniri kutadza kufunga nezvekutya uye tariro yevanhu. Naizvozvo, kubata kutambura kwaKristu norufu kuchatungamirira maonero nenzira inoshamisa mupfungwa uye munguva yemberi yokuvapo kwomunhu. Kugadzirisa mutambo wePassion kunovavarira kujekesa zvinhu zvakakosha zvemharidzo yaJesu kune vashanyi vanhasi: vatendi, vanotenda kuti Mwari haazivikanwi kana vasingatendi kuvapo kwaMwari. "Zvakakosha kuti isu titsigire chokwadi chekuti Jesu anoenda kumucheto wenzanga, achichengeta vakaparadzaniswa. Jesu ane vanorwara, vatorwa - haazvinetse pamusoro pezvinzvimbo, anozoitika zvinoshamisa…,” VaStückl vanodaro. “Sevamwe vese, Jesu anoziva kutya - uye kunyangwe zvakadaro anoramba akasimba. Jesu Kristu anonakidza - pamwe kune vasingatendi kuti kuna Mwari," Christian Stückl anopedzisa, achinyemwerera.

Kutamba chinzvimbo chaJesu Kristu kunotogona kukurira chero mutambi ane ushingi. “Basa racho rinoreva kurwisana kwomukati, kukanganisa,” anodaro VaRochus Rückel, mumwe wevatambi vaviri vaJesu. “Zviitiko zvinopinda mundangariro dzaJesu zvakaoma zvikuru kutamba kupfuura apo iye anotaura zvakajeka.” – Mutevedzeri waRückel, VaFrederik Mayet vanowedzera kuti: “Mutambo wePassion Play unoenda pamwoyo chaipo. Kana isu tikatamba ne zest, simba, kutendeseka uye mufaro, ichave yakanaka nzira iyi inogonesa vateereri. Ipapo pane imwe nguva yemashiripiti iyo kumativi ese ari maviri anoburitsa simba. "

Nguva dzemashiripiti dzakagoverwawo naMai Andrea Hecht, vachitamba amai vaJesu Maria naMai Barbara Schuster saMaria weMagadala, mudzidzi waJesu wechikadzi akatanhamara. Andrea Hecht ane chokwadi chokuti vakadzi vaviri ava “vainyatsoziva zvaifungwa naJesu. Kuonekana kwavo kwaigonawo kuitika pano uye iko zvino. Izvozvo zvinobaya mwoyo. Imwe haisi kuomeswa nekufamba kwemakore ekutamba Passion. "

VaMarkus Zwink, Mutungamiriri weMumhanzi wePlay's Musical Director, anonongedzera kuhunhu hwePassion Play se "oratorium." VaZwink vanoti: “Sezvineiwo, iri pedyo neoratorio tsvene yenguva yekupedzisira yekirasi, asiwo muchidimbu mutauro wenziyo waFelix Mendelssohn Bartholdy.” Chinhu chitsva ndechekuti kwaya inotungamira Mutambo, ichivandudza mhiko yevagari veOberammergau muna 1633 uye ichiperekedza iyo inonzi 'Mupenyu Mifananidzo'.

Pasi pechikwata chitsva chevakuru naVaStefan Hageneier sedariro uye mugadziri wezvipfeko, kutarisisa kwakanyanya kwakapihwa kune gumi nembiri 'Mifananidzo Inorarama' inopa chimiro kumutambo wemaawa mashanu ese. 'Mifananidzo mipenyu' iyo inoratidza mifananidzo yeTestamende Yekare yeBhaibheri, izere nemifananidzo uye zviratidzo, nevatambi vachitamba patafura, sekunge vabatwa nemufananidzo. “Pfungwa itsva iri seri kwe‘Mifananidzo Inorarama’ ndeyokuratidza nhamba huru yevanhu vari mumisiyano yakasiyana-siyana yokudzvinyirirwa, kutiza uye kutambudzwa, asiwo netariro,” VaHageneier vanodaro. Pfungwa iyi yakamutevera kubvira apo vapoteri mukupererwa vakatora nzira dzine njodzi dzekutama nemugwenga uye mhiri kwegungwa, kubva 2015 kusvika nhasi, kuti vatize hondo uye hudzvanyiriri.

Kukosha kwakaiswa pachiitiko chenhoroondo yePassion yaKristu.

Chishuvo chenguva refu chemaJuda chaive chakanangana na'Mesia', uyo anotevera chiporofita chekare aizouya kuzosunungura maJuda kubva pajoko reRoma. Mamiriro ezvinhu ezvematongerwe enyika akanga asina kugadzikana uye pfungwa dzevanhu dzakanga dzisina tariro. Mhepo iyi yaizoendeswa kuOberammergau Passion Play Theatre - dambudziko kuchikwata chepamusoro chePlay, icho chainzwisisa 2022 Passion Play se 'kutanga kutsva'.

Nepo nhanho yekutanga yePassion Play Theatre yakatevera maitiro echiGreek ekare, kushandurwa kwayo kuita 'dystopian temple complex' kunoitirwa kumiririra nzvimbo yekare yeguta reJerusarema. Iyo dystopian leitmotif yekufamba kwenguva yevapoteri isingaperi inoratidzwa mu'Living Images', semavara anopenya etariro anomira pachena kune kwakasviba kumashure. Uyezve, chitarisiko chedystopian chetemberi chinoshanda kune gakava rinonyanya kutungamirwa pamusoro pemutongo waJesu, sezvo vadzidzi vake vanonyanya kuitirwa kurwisa vavengi vavo. Uyezve, hunhu hwaJudhasi munhamo yake yose huri kusimbiswa zvakasimba. Judhasi anoda kusimudzira pfungwa yake pachake yakafemerwa nezvematongerwo enyika yeshoko raJesu. Haadi kufa kwatenzi wake.

The Passion's Implicit Turn-around

Panguva iyi, the Oberammergau Passion Play yawedzera kufarirwa - kumba nekune dzimwe nyika. Vashanyi vane mukurumbira vanosanganisira madzimambo eEurope neAsia, vatambi vane mukurumbira uye mainjiniya kubva kuFrance, vatungamiri nemamiriyoni emadhora kubva kuUS, vanyori nevanyori vanobva kuGermany neEurope, vanarabhi vanobva kuIsrael, vanapapa, makadhinari, uye vezvematongerwo enyika - vakanaka uye vasina kunaka.

Muna 2010, 500,000 vashanyi vaiwanzoshanyira Play. Asi muzana ramakore rechi 19 vanhu vekuAmerica vekuAmerica vakatanga kuona Oberammergau, muna 1880 Thomas Cook akanga atanga kushanyira dunhu iri. Yakanga ingori nyaya yenguva kusvika kushanya kwepasirese kwawedzera simba kunharaunda yengano pakati peNeuschwanstein castle neZugspitze. Nzvimbo yepamusoro-soro yeGermany inokwira zvakanyanyisa pamusoro peElmau Castle, nzvimbo inoyevedza yemusangano weG7. Nguva nenguva, masangana ari mumhepo: nepo vatungamiri veG7 vari kutamburira chimwe chinhu chakafanana chechiitiko uye varatidziri vachiratidzira mabanderoles avo, muOberammergau, makiromita gumi nemanomwe nemhepo, Passion Play inoenderera mberi ichiita inonakidza vateereri vanotenda.

Iyo Oberammergau Passion Play yakabatana zvine hukama nedenda ra1632 uye Hondo Yemakore Makumi Matatu muEurope, nepo Palestine, iyo nhoroondo yenzvimbo yeChristian Passion, yaive dunhu rakagarwa neRoma. Zvino, isu tiri zvapupu zvehondo inosanganisira rufu uye kuparadzwa muRussia-yakabatwa uye yakarwiswa Ukraine, uku Covid-19, denda rinotyisa iro rakavhundutsa nyika, rinoramba rakavanda nenhamba dzezviitiko, zvichishora chimiro chedu chakagadziridzwa chekuzorora kwechirimo uye kusava nehanya. . - Takapinda muzera redystopian here? Ko Oberammergau yakavhurazve Passion Play mwaka wezhizha munguva chaiyo?

Kushuva kwaKristu kunonzwika sechiitiko chedystopian, pamwe zvakatonyanya panguva yegore rino rakamiswa Passion Play. Hazvina basa kutaura kuti Passion, inotorwa pasina Kumuka semusiyano wakanyanya, waizoita kuti kutenda kwechiKristu kuve kusina maturo. Chokwadi ichi choga chinopembedza kushandurwa kwemuchinjikwa sedanda reRoma kuva chiratidzo chisingaenzaniswi chetariro nekurudziro. Muzviri mukati maro uye kupfava kwechimiro chawo, muchinjikwa ndechimwe chezviratidzo zvakatanhamara zvenyika. Panyaya yezvino 'branding' maitiro, tinogona kutaura kuti hazvisati zvamboitika - uye zvakatsigirwa - kunyatsoita 're-branding' kubva kune yakaipa kuenda kune yakanaka. Hazvirevi chinhu kunze kwekutendeuka-kutenderera: kuregedza kutya uye kudzvanyirirwa kune hushingi nerusununguko.

Nhau Dzakabatana

Nezvomunyori

Max Haberstroh

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